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SuggsChapter_10_Notes - -Chapter 10Chapter 10 Reactions in...

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-Chapter 10- 1 Chapter 10: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids/Bases/Salts [10-2] The Arrhenius Theory Developed by Svante Arrhenius Acid: is a substance that contains hydrogen and produces a H+(proton) in aqueous solution o HCl H+ + Cl- o HCOOH H+ + COOH- o *Review list of 7 strong acids* Base: is a substance that contains the hydroxyl group(OH) and produces hydroxide (OH-) in aqueous solution o NaOH Na+ + OH- (monobasic…. 1mol of OH -) o Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + OH- (dibasic… 2mols of OH -) o *Review list of 8 strong bases* Neutralization occurs when a proton (H+) combines with a hydroxide (OH-) to form a water molecule o H+ + OH H2O o Acid/base rxns are neutralization rxns o Strong acid/base rxns generally have the same net ionic equation (the one shown above) o 2HCl + Ba(OH)2 BaCl2 + 2H2O 2H+ + 2Cl- + Ba2+ + 2OH- Ba2+ + 2Cl- + H2O H+ + OH- H2O o (Exception) H2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 BaSO4 + 2H2O [10-3] The Hydronium Ion (hydrated hydrogen ion) Protons (H+) cant exist in aqueous solution even though we frequently refer to this Actually, the H+ ion is ALWAYS immediately surrounded by several water molecules to form H3O+ Experiment and demonstration o So far.. acids produce H+; bases produce OH- o We can use an indicator to determine whether something is an acid/base o Boromocresol purple= typical indicator Yellow=acid Purple= base o Ex: NaOH= purple …. HCl= yellow 3PO4= yellow NH3= purple o Ammonia(NH3) would form NH2- if it lost a proton; highly unlikely. Ammonia is a base.. just not an Arrhenius base [10-4] The Bronsted-Lowry Theory
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-Chapter 10- 2 BL acid: proton donor BL base: proton acceptor H20(base) + HBr(acid) -> H3O+ + Br- General form o H20 + H-A H3O+ + A- o NH3 + H20 NH4+ + OH- Important? o Bases no longer have to be hydroxides o Rxns do not have to occur in aqueous solns BL Neutralitzation o The transfer of a proton(H+) from one species to another Ex: MH3 + HCl NH4+ + Cl- All A-Acids are BL-acids; all A-bases are BL-bases Conjugate acid/base pairs o These are pairs of species that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton(only by ONE) o Conj. Acid has the proton; conj. Base does not have the proton o EX: OH- … H2O HCL … Cl - NH3 … NH4(+) HPO4(2- ) … PO4(3 -) NH3 … NH2( -) Concept: o To form a CA: add a proton(H) and add +1 to the charge o To form a CB: subtract a proton(H) and remove a -1 from the charge o Ex: HCOOH + H2O H3O+ + HCOO- Acid: HCOOH (formic acid) CB:
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