Onwards●Radical Reformation●Princely Reformation●Reformed ProtestantismReligious Authority●Who’s in charge of religion?●Church, state, or self?●No Protestant Prince until 1525; no king until 1534○No authority embraces Protestantism for awhileLuther’s Rivals●Huldrych Zwingli●Bright middle class child●Swiss parish priest●Army chaplainLuther vs. Zwingli●Dislike each other●Both: Salvation via grace as opposed to salvation via acts○Import of Scripture●Zwingli:○Only Scripture, reject images, Eucharist is symbolicZwingli’s Zurich●1 of 13 independent cantons●1499 defeat Habsburgs●Resistance to authority accepted○Open to new forms of religion●Power centered in cities○No big prince○Often Reformation starts in cities such as theseReforming Zurich●1522: Sausage Party○12 reformed religionists were sitting around a table on the first day of Lent○Take 2 sausages and cut it into pieces and eat them■Defiant because they were eating meat during Lent●Symbolic act showing their separation from the Catholic Church●They don’t see this in Bible●1523: Public Disputation○Set up debate between different parties and city fathers see who they agree with■Zwingli wins■Restrictions shouldn’t be put on people●1524: Ban images○Iconoclasm●1525: Ban Mass○No ceremony; sermons still around ●Radicalism growsRadical Reformation●New ideas run amok●All can have authority●Rise of iconoclasm
●No church, just evangelicals○All this happening without any authority●Old loyalties broken○Within church and within statePeasants’ War, 1524-1525●Landowning peasants lead○Not a popular (as in common people) uprising○Relatively well off in this class○Landlords often church●Old debate: Tithes○Money you would pay to church to support priest●Plunder monasteries●Feb 1525: 30,000 peasants●March: 12 Articles○12 demands○People have religious authority over church○Ultimate authority is the Bible○Importance of contract and Scripture●April: Imperial Army crackdown (HRE)●Thousands killedScars●Scares rural population●Scares rulers○Clamp down●Luther,
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John Calvin, Protestant Reformation, religious authority, Princely Reformation