final notes - CHAPTER 14 POWER AND POLITICS Formal power...

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CHAPTER 14 – POWER AND POLITICS Formal power – based on indiv position in org 1. coercive power – dependent on fear; one reacts out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply 2. reward power – opposite of coercive; people comply with another’s wishes since doing so produces positive benefits; financial (raises/bonuses) or nonfinacial (recognition, interesting work asng) 3. legitimate power – power bases of one’s structural position; includes acceptance by members in an org or team personal power – indiv unique characteristics 1. expert power – power from expertise, special skill, knowledge 2. referent power – identification with a person who has desirable resources/traits (i.e. respected, admirable, etc.) power as dependency – more dependency, greater the power 1. importance – to create dependency, the resource a person has must be important; an organization must seek the resource/trait/ability you have 2. scarcity – dependency increases if a resource cannot be found elsewhere 3. nonsubstitutability – more dependence if there are few substitutes for a resource power tactics 1. legitimacy – relying on ones authority of position or stressing that a request is in accordance with organizational policies or rules 2. rational persuasion – presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable 3. inspirational appeals – emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations 4. consultation – increasing the target’s motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be done 5. exchange – rewarding the target w/ benefits/favors in exchange for following a request 6. personal appeals – asking for compliance based on friendship/loyalty 7. ingratiation – flattery, praise, friendly behavior prior to making request 8. pressure – warnings, repeated demands, threats 9. coalitions – enlisting aid of other ppl to persuade the target or using the support of others as a reason for target to agree political behavior in org – activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in org, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization 1. individuals and groups have different interests and goals from the org 2. limited resources create conflict since everyone’s needs can be provided for 3. facts used to allocate resources are open to interpretation
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4. decisions made in ambiguous climate, people will use whatever influence they can to taint facts to support goals/interests CHAPTER 15 – CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION Conflict Process Stage 1: Potential opposition – presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict arise 1. communication – differing word connotations, jargon, noise all contribute to barriers to comm and conflict 2. structure – size, degree of specialization, member-goal compatibility , reward systems, etc.
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