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政治與英語語言LNG

政治與英語語言LNG - 1946

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政治與英語語言 喬治奧威爾 1946 大多數為英語而煩心的人都會承認,英語的處境不佳,並且我們不能通過有意識的行 動而使這種情形有所改觀。我們的文明頹廢不堪,語言也不能倖免,她不可避免的成為整 體衰落的一份子。隨之而來,任何反對濫用語言的努力都是感情上的複古主義者,就像那 些傾向於蠟燭而非電燈,或是偏愛馬車而非飛機的努力一樣。言外之意,這裡隱藏著一種 並不十分明晰的信念,即語言是自然衍生的結果,並不是我們為自身之便而創造的工具。 現在可以明白了,一種語言的衰落歸根結底都會有政治和經濟上的原因:而不能簡單 的歸因於一兩個蹩腳作家的不良影響。但這種影響也可以是原因之一,而且能增強最初的 原因並且在一種增強了的形式中產生同樣的效果,如此無限循環,越搞越糟。一個人可以 由於感到失敗而溺於飲酒,而後由於飲酒從而導致更大的失敗;幾乎同樣的事情就發生在 英語語言自身之上。她由於我們愚笨的想法而變得粗陋不堪、難以精確,而雜亂懶散的語 言又使我們更容易產生愚笨的想法。問題的關鍵在於,此二者互為因果、相互激盪。現代 英語,尤其是書面語,充斥著由於因襲而來的不良表達,而某人如果願意為此多費心神, 則可以完全避免。如果一個人可以丟掉這些不良表達,他將可以更清晰準確的思考,而清 晰準確的思考,則是邁向政治重生的必要的第一步:由此,對抗不良的英語表達並非妄動 之舉,也並非唯有職 作家 容。過會 論談 希望屆時 我所表達的 容將更為清晰。 眼下 ,這裡有 個英語表達的樣 ,他們 用的都是 目前習慣性 法。 五段短 文並非因為著 糕才被挑選出 —— 而要是 挑選 ,我將會 找出 的文 —— 但是他們 明了我們 目前遇 到的種種想法。這些文 章略低 平均水平 ,但作 為有代表 卻已足夠 。我將其一一 編號 ,以便必要 用: (譯 :為 現作 者所 批評 的問題,原文 未翻譯) 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski ( Essay in Freedom of Expression )
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2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder .
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