Exam 1 Review - ANTH Exam 1 Review Evolution 8:56:00 PM...

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ANTH Exam 1 Review 26/09/2007 22:56:00 Evolution Gradual change over time Change in gene allele frequencies over generations Framework used to explain the origin of adaptations Mechanisms: o Mutation o Gene flow o Genetic drift o Natural selection Microevolution o How populations change through natural selection and other evolutionary forces Macroevolution o How new species and higher taxa are formed Natural Selection Differential reproductive success of individuals in a population based on phenotypic traits Responsiveness to environment Reproductive success Conditions: o Needs to be variation o Variation must be heritable
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o Competition o Limited resources Changes gene frequencies Produces adaptations that benefit individuals Genetic Drift Random variation in gene frequency due to sampling variation Bottleneck o Large population o Natural disaster and death o Variation is not comparable Founder effect o Subset breaks off, variation decreases o Interbreeding o Takes time to get back to original variation Alleles One of two or more alternate forms of a gene Dominant Describing an allele that results in the same phenotype whether in the homozygous or the heterozygous state Recessive Describing an allele that is expressed in the phenotype only when it is in the homozygous state Recombination
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Creation of novel genotypes as a result of the random segregation of chromosomes and of crossing over Adaptation Feature of an organism created by the process of natural selection Characteristic that helps an individual survive or reproduce Result from competition among individuals Phylogeny Evolutionary relationships among a group of species Usually diagrammed in a family tree Basis for identification and classification of organisms Explain why a species evolves certain adaptations Help deduce the function of features by comparing the traits of different species Convergence Evolution of similar adaptations in unrelated species Diploid
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