Lecture 24 07Final - EEP 143 Lecture 24 International...

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EEP 143 Lecture 24 International Aspects of IP Protection Treaties and conventions Efforts of South to benefit from indigenous biodiversity and knowledge
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Important IP Treaties and Conventions 1. Paris Convention 1884 National treatment Harmonized domestic treatment of citizens and foreigners No other harmonization across countries 2. Berne Convention 1886 For copyrights Some harmonization across countries US did not join until 1989 3. TRIPS agreement 1994 Beyond National Treatment to minimum patent standards
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Important IP Treaties and Conventions (contd.) 4. European Database Directive 1996 beyond copyright to protect information - resisted in US 5. Numerous (NAFTA) agreements and bilateral deals involving the USA or the EU, starting with small, weak countries (e.g. Jordan).
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TRIPS Agreement on trade-related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights An institutional innovation: IP was previously discussed in WIPO (World IP Org.) Moved IPR enforcement into the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) realm Large (trade-related) penalties available in GATT
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TRIPS Agreement on trade-related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Innovators were the CEOs of Levi Strauss and Disney (copyright interests), and Pfizer and IBM (patents interests) who lobbied others in business Previously copyright interests favored bilateral deals Key fact: focus was on exploiting existing IP in a US market threatened by foreign competition in production and innovation Interests of LDCs initially not relevant
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TRIPS Agreement on trade-related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights LDCs initially opposed trips Threatened with US bilateral harassment (Section 301 sanctions) Korea, Brazil Offered prospect of later concessions in textiles and agriculture No provision for protection of indigenous resources or knowledge
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One US observer’s view: © Boettiger et al. 2004
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Lecture 24 07Final - EEP 143 Lecture 24 International...

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