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Unformatted text preview: Minerva Access is the Institutional Repository of The University of Melbourne Author/s: Emilia, Emi Title: A critical genre based approach to teaching academic writing in a tertiary EFL context in Indonesia. Date: 2005 Citation: Emilia, E. (2005). A critical genre based approach to teaching academic writing in a tertiary EFL context in Indonesia, PhD thesis, Dept of Language, Literarcy and Arts Education, University of Melbourne. Publication Status: Unpublished Persistent Link: File Description: A critical genre based approach to teaching academic writing in a tertiary EFL context in Indonesia Terms and Conditions: Terms and Conditions: Copyright in works deposited in Minerva Access is retained by the copyright owner. The work may not be altered without permission from the copyright owner. Readers may only download, print and save electronic copies of whole works for their own personal non-commercial use. Any use that exceeds these limits requires permission from the copyright owner. Attribution is essential when quoting or paraphrasing from these works. A CRITICAL GENRE-BASED APPROACH TO TEACHING ACADEMIC WRITING IN A TERTIARY EFL CONTEXT IN INDONESIA VOLUME 1 EMI EMILIA Dra (Bandung, Indonesia), Grad. Dip. Arts (Deakin University, Melbourne), M.Ed (Deakin University, Melbourne) Submitted in Total Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy May, 2005 Department of Language, Literacy and Arts Education Faculty of Education The University of Melbourne DECLARATION Except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text to other materials, this thesis comprises only original work by this writer. The length of the thesis, exclusive of tables, figures, bibliographies, appendices and footnotes, is less than 100,000 words. Signed ……………………… Emi Emilia, May, 2005. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have helped me throughout this study. My first and foremost thanks go to my supervisors, Prof Frances Christie and Dr. Kristina Love. Prof. Frances Christie has been a constant source of knowledge, strong encouragement and sustained critical support for the whole course of the study. Dr. Kristina Love has been the main supervisor and also a constant source of knowledge, strong encouragement as well as critical support after Prof. Frances Christie’s resignation from the University of Melbourne. Without Dr. Kristina’s guidance and supervision, I can hardly imagine the completion of the research project. It has indeed been a great privilege and joy to work under the guidance and scaffolding of both the supervisors, which made every step on the road to the completion of the research project as easy as possible. My special thanks are also due to the students, who have given me an opportunity to learn together. Some colleagues in the research site also deserve a special mention, especially Pak Bukhori and Ibu Safrina, for help so generously given to me and Dr. Bachrudin Musthafa, who acted as an external supervisor under the University of Melbourne Post Graduate Overseas Research Experience Scheme (PORES) grant, for his guidance during the data collections. I also thank many lecturers and students in the Department of Language, Literacy and Arts Education, the University of Melbourne, for their share and support as well as feedback to my study in various department presentations. My heartfelt thanks go to my parents, sisters, in laws who in different, but equal ways, have contributed to my study immeasurably, for their sincere love and prayers Finally, I want to acknowledge a special debt of gratitude to my family: to my husband, Akhmad Tizani, and to my children, Mizan and Najmi, for their support to a wife and a mother whose mind was not always free to give the attention they needed. It is with pleasure that to them all I dedicate this thesis. iii ABSTRACT This thesis reports on the effectiveness of using a critical genre-based approach (GBA) in teaching academic English writing to student teachers who were learning English as a foreign language in a state university, West Java, Indonesia. The model of the GBA (as adapted from Rothery, 1996 and others relevant to the study) was distinctive in that it sought to synthesise principles from other theories, to do with critical thinking (e.g. Paul, 1992, 1993), critical pedagogy (e.g. Freire, 1971, 1993, 1997) and critical literacy (e.g. Wallace, 1992a, b, 2001). The approach was also distinctive in that it sought to use a genre-based pedagogy with a community of English as a foreign language (EFL) students, whereas hitherto most uses of this pedagogy have been with native speakers or English as a second language (ESL) students. The study employed a qualitative research design, embracing characteristics of a case study and to some extent a program evaluation. The data were obtained from several sources, including a questionnaire prior to an 11 week teaching program; classroom observations by the researcher and her colleague, collection of samples of students’ texts in various stages of the teaching program, which were then analysed using systemic functional grammar (SFG) as developed by Halliday (1985b, 1994a); Halliday and Mathiessen (2004); students’ journals written after each teaching session; and two stages of interviews with the student participants, immediately after the program and eight months after the program. The findings revealed that despite some limitations, the teaching program was successful in many ways in the Indonesian EFL tertiary teaching context. Most significantly, the students’ argumentative writing skills in English improved in that they achieved enhanced control of the target argumentative genre, at greater length, with clear schematic structure and improved use of evidence and information in support of their arguments, using various linguistic resources, which also indicates their development in critical thinking and critical literacy. Moreover, data from classroom observations, students’ journals and interviews showed that the students were aware of having made progress in terms of metalanguage for discussing critical reading and writing; a good grasp of those critical thinking dispositions, iv abilities and skills taught in the program; and enhanced awareness of the values of class dialogue, a democratic atmosphere, and the different roles of the teacher which allowed them to actively participate in their learning. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a critical GBA be gradually adopted in Indonesia, as part of the centralized curriculum to enhance the teaching of English in Indonesia, of English writing in particular. The Indonesian government’s implementation of the 2004 curriculum, and the GBA in particular, should be conducted more intensively to provide English teachers with a sound understanding of the background to and practical guidance on the application of the approach in their classes. Teacher education should also provide student teachers with sound knowledge about English language and literacy and pedagogical principles for their teaching. In addition, given the urgency of the need for critical thinking and the calls for the implementation of interactive curriculum, it is now the right time to infuse critical thinking and critical pedagogy across the subjects of the school curriculum. v TABLE OF CONTENT DECLARATION ...............................................................................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..............................................................................................iii ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENT.................................................................................................... vi LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................. x LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................xiii CHAPTER ONE: ENGLISH EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA ..... 1 1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 English in Official Policies ........................................................................................ 2 1.3 English in the National School and University Curricula ......................................... 4 1.3.1 English in the National School Curriculum: Primary and Secondary Education5 1.3.2 English in Tertiary Education ............................................................................. 8 1.3.3 Official Policies on English Curriculum for Secondary Education from Indonesian Independence to the Present ............................................................. 9 1.4 Research and Cases Portraying Performance and the Teaching of English in Indonesia................................................................................................................. 11 1.5 The Teaching of English in the Reform Era (since Soeharto’s Resignation) .......... 13 1.6 The Teaching of English Writing in the Research Site ............................................ 15 1.7 The Significance of the Study................................................................................... 17 1.8 Outline of the Thesis ................................................................................................ 18 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................. 19 2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. 19 2.2.Critical Thinking (CT) ............................................................................................. 20 2.2.1 The Concept of CT............................................................................................ 21 2.2.2 Essential Components of CT ............................................................................ 24 2.2.3 The Teaching and Assessment of CT ............................................................... 27 2.2.4 The Relationship between CT and Literacy (Reading and Writing) ................ 29 2.2.5. Criticisms of the CT Movement ...................................................................... 30 2.2.6 Summary of Discussion of CT.......................................................................... 31 2.3. Critical Pedagogy (CP) .......................................................................................... 32 2.3.1 Reading the Word and the World ..................................................................... 34 2.3.2 Dialogic Education............................................................................................ 35 2.3.3 The Classroom as a Democratic Public Sphere ................................................ 37 2.3.4 Criticisms of CP................................................................................................ 38 2.3.5 Summary of the Discussion of CP .................................................................... 39 2.4 Critical Literacy (CL) .............................................................................................. 40 2.4.1 A Critical Social Literacy: Literacy as a Social Practice.................................. 41 2.4.2 Summary of the Discussion of CL.................................................................... 45 2.5 Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) .................................................................... 46 2.5.1 Basic Principles in SF Theory .............................................................................. 47 2.5.2 Text and Context............................................................................................... 49 vi 2.5.3 Intertextuality.................................................................................................... 53 2.5.4 Metafunctions ................................................................................................... 54 2.5.5 The SFL Genre Theory and Approach ............................................................. 56 2.5.5.1 The Concept of Genre................................................................................ 57 2.5.5.2 Argumentative Genres ............................................................................... 59 2.5.5.3 Major Goals and Principles in the SF Genre Traditions............................ 61 2.5.5.4 Models of Teaching under the SFL GBA.................................................. 67 2.5.5.5 Criticisms of the SFL GBA ....................................................................... 68 2.5.6 Summary of the discussion of SFL................................................................... 71 2.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 72 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ....................................................................... 73 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 73 3.2 Methodology ............................................................................................................ 73 3.2.1 Purpose of the Study and Research Question ................................................... 73 3.2.2 Research Design ............................................................................................... 74 3.2.3 Setting ............................................................................................................... 75 3.2.4 Participants ....................................................................................................... 76 3.2.5 Data Collection ................................................................................................. 78 3.2.5.1 A Phase of Teaching EFL Writing Classes ............................................... 78 3.2.5.2 The Collection of Students’ Written Texts................................................ 79 3.2.5.3 The Use of Interviews................................................................................ 80 3.2.6 Data Analysis.................................................................................................... 84 3.2.7 Summary of Methodology of the Study ........................................................... 86 3.3 Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) ..................................................................... 87 3.3.1 The Theme System ........................................................................................... 88 3.3.1.1 The Boundary of Theme............................................................................ 88 3.3.1.2 Longer Unit Themes .................................................................................. 90 3.3.1.3 Thematic Progression ................................................................................ 91 3.3.1.4 Higher Level Themes: Macro- and Hyper-Themes................................... 92 3.3.2 The Transitivity System.................................................................................... 94 3.3.2.1 Process Types and Their Participants ........................................................ 95 3.3.2.1.1 Material Processes: Processes of Doing ............................................. 95 3.3.2.1.2 Mental Processes: Processes of Sensing............................................ 96 3.3.2.1.3 Verbal Processes: Processes of Saying............................................... 96 3.3.2.1.4 Relational Processes: Processes of Being.......................................... 97 3.3.2.1.5 Behavioural Processes ........................................................................ 99 3.3.2.1.6 Existential Processes........................................................................... 99 3.3.2.2 Circumstances.......................................................................................... 100 3.3.3 The Conjunction System................................................................................. 101 3.3.4 Modality.......................................................................................................... 102 3.3.5 Grammatical Metaphor................................................................................... 104 3.3.5.1 Ideational metaphor ................................................................................. 105 3.3.5.2 Interpersonal Metaphor............................................................................ 106 3.3.6 Summary of the Discussion of SFG ............................................................... 106 3.4 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 107 vii CHAPTER FOUR: THE TEACHING PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW ...................... 108 4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 108 4.2 Preliminary Phase of the Teaching Program ........................................................ 109 4.2.1 Activity 1: Inducting the Students with the Teaching Program...................... 109 4.2.2 Activity 2: Joint Decision on the Topics for Writing ..................................... 110 4.2.3 Activity 3: Searching for Texts and Reading Materials.................................. 111 4.2.4 Activity 4: Distribution of Questionnaires and Diagnostic Writing ............... 113 4.2.5 Summary of the Preliminary Phase of the Teaching Program........................ 114 4.3 The Teaching Program .......................................................................................... 115 4.3.1. The Teaching of CT and Introduction to CL ................................................. 117 4.3.1.1 Step 1: Explicit Teaching on CT-Related Features.................................. 118 4.3.1.2 Step 2: Application of CT in Social Context ............................................... 120 4.3.1.3 Step 3: Dealing with Texts on Arguments – Introduction to CL............. 122 4.3.1.4 Step 4: Comparing Different Texts on the Same Topic........................... 126 4.3.1.5 Summary of the Teaching of CT – Introduction to CL ........................... 128 4.3.2 Teaching the Discussion Genre – Implementation of the GBA and Consolidation of Critical Capacities ............................................................... 128 4.3.2.1 Introduction to the GBA and Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) .... 129 4.3.2.2 Implementation of the Teaching Cycle.................................................... 132 4.3.2.2.1 Teaching Cycle 1 .............................................................................. 134 4.3.2.2.1.1 Stage 1: Building Knowledge of the Field – the Teaching of CL ...................................................................................................................... 135 4.3.2.2.1.2 Stage 2: Modelling (Deconstruction)......................................... 140 4.3.2.2.1.3 Stage 3: Joint Construction ........................................................ 144 4.3.2.2.1.4 Stage 4: Independent Construction of the Text.......................... 152 4.3.2.2.2 Teaching Cycle 2 .............................................................................. 155 4.3.2.2.2.1 Stage 1: Building Knowledge of the Field – the Teaching of CL ...................................................................................................................... 156 4.3.2.2.2.2 Stage 2: Independent Construction ............................................ 158 4.3.2.3 Summary of the Teaching of the Discussion Genre – Implementation of the GBA and Consolidation of Critical Capacities......................................... 158 4.4. Conclusion ..........................................
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