midterm guide 2 - American Midterm Review Part I Essay...

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American Midterm Review Part I Essay Question 1: Please characterize the changes in American politics and the American economy from the beginning of the 19 th century through the 1828 election of Andrew Jackson. What were these changes, and how did they affect American society? - Republicanism ruled the political system for approximately the first 60 years. - The classical perception of virtue is against factions; they want political equality, protection of liberty, and property ownership. - People outside of the “circle of citizens” are slaves, free blacks, and women - Jefferson was a 2-sided person who contradicted what he said: o Owned slaves o Louisiana Purchase - In 1800, slavery changed drastically because of Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin which demanded much more slaves. o Cotton became the largest and most important U.S. export 1790- 3,000 bails of cotton exported 1800’s- millions of bails of cotton were being exported - In 1803, Jefferson saw it necessary to expand to the West o Buys Louisiana territory for $15 million (best land deal in history) - In 1806, Congress authorizes funds for construction of National Road o Made trading easier and more convenient - 1807: Jefferson puts embargo on all U.S. exports to Europe o British Navy had been taking U.S. mariners captive and Jefferson decided to fight back. o Only made the tensions between England and the U.S. more intense. - In 1807 the steam engine is invented which revolutionizes transportation - In 1809, James Madison is inaugurated as the new president and, soon thereafter, congress repeals the embargo because it intensified tensions between England and the U.S. - Erie Canal is built between 1810-1825, and greatly helps the American economy because it connects the Ohio River Valley with New York and the Great Lakes o Canals made shipping much faster which increased the capability to trade In 1817, fastest shipments for trade took 2 months from Ohio River Valley New York After Erie Canal is built, it only takes 1 week to make the shipment. o The building of canals ended the isolation of the backcountry from cities o Common goods decreased in price due to the accessibility of products
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o After seeing how much the building of roads and canals helped the economy, many corporations invested in building roads to help increase their companies. - The American economy was thriving because of a few major political schemes: o Embargo of 1807 o War of 1812 o Both of these stimulated manufacturing through the U.S. - In New England, the earliest stages of the Industrial revolution transformed the workplace and the economy o Many crafts and textiles in New England were moving from specialized small shops into corporations o Unskilled laborers were only working on certain parts of different crafts instead of makings things from beginning to the completion o This transformation increased the production in the economy because it made it more efficient.
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