Exam 2 Review - ANTH 200Lg The Origins of Humanity Chapters...

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ANTH 200Lg: The Origins of Humanity Chapters 5-9, AE 10-13). Heterodontism -having different kinds of teeth for different functions -canines, incisors, premolars, molars Reasoning by analogy / homology -homology: looking at closest relative -analogy: adaptive responses to selective pressures Frugivory -animal whose diet consists mostly of fruit Folivory -animal whose diet consists mostly of fruit Mating/social systems -form of courtship, mating, and parenting behavior that characterizes a particular species or population, --example: polyandry, monogamy, gynandry, polygyny, solitary Contest/scramble competition -a form of competition gthat occurs when resources are clumped in space and worth defending Cathemerality - active both during the day and at night , diurnal Sexual selection - favors traits that lead to gaining access to mates, intra-sexual competition, inter-sexual choice, inter- sexual conflict - leads to adaptations that allow males to compete more effectively - often stronger than natural selection Altruistic behavior -reduces the fitness of the individual performing the behavior but increases the fitness of the individual by the behavior -benefits recipient -cannot evolve by natural selection -cannot be favored by group selection Selfish behavior -benefits actor, don’t help others Two reasons why anthropologists study non-human primates -we evolved from them -they exhibit mannerisms close to ours: analogies, and homologies Hypothesis that have been proposed to explain the adaptive radiation of the Order Primates The Arboreal: adopted to fill a niche that was open, primates evolved physiological morphologies to support their niche to live in trees Visual-Predation: shift from olfaction to vision, eye sockets revolved more forward, different technique for capturing prey Angiosperm Co-evolution: primates evolved because there was a new radiation of angiosperms and primates acted as seed dispersers, the two used and complimented each other Primate taxonomy : five taxa, three distinguishing features of behavior or anatomy that distinguishes each nonprimate - strepsirhine -Lemurs, loris, tarsiers -reduced upper incisors, tooth comb, grooming claw, moist rhinarium haplorhine -platyrhines (NWM) and catarhines (OWM) platyrrhine -new world monkeys (capuchin)
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-round nostrils, 2133 catarhines -old world monkeys (baboon), apes, humans -downward forward facing nostrils, 2123 cercopithecoid -old world monkeys -2123, diurnal, quadrupedalism, omnivorous, 1 male multi female hominoid -apes, humans -2123 Three main proximate threats endangering primates
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