Final Exam Review - FINAL EXAM Thursday 13 Dec 2007 2:00...

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FINAL EXAM: Thursday, 13 Dec 2007, 2:00 – 4:00pm Review Questions for Exam #3 (the FINAL) The FINAL exam will be mixed format and non-cumulative. You are responsible for both lecture and material from the text ( see below ). Also take advantage of your lab manual and online resources such as http://www.wwnorton.com/web/evolve Readings : Boyd and Silk (2006) How Humans Evolved, 4 th Edition. Please focus on: Ch. 10: 242-255 (Box 10.3, p262-263); Ch. 11: p269-297; Ch. 12: p304-314; Ch. 13: p327-332, p337- 353, p358-360; Ch. 14: p362-364, p376-388; Ch. 15: ALL; Ch. 16: p431-440, p445-455; Ch. 17: p457- 472 Annual Editions in Physical Anthropology 07/08: Articles 35-38, 43-44. Why might geology and climate change been important factors in relation to primate (and human) evolution? The position of the continents plays an important role in the evolution of species and continental drift is one of the engines of climate change. Since the environment is constantly changing, evolution does not follow a straight distinct path. What is continental drift / plate tectonics? Continental drift is the movement of the continents. The enormous relatively light plates of rock that make up the continents slowly drift around the globe, floating on the denser rock that forms the floor of the deep ocean. What are some examples of absolute and relative dating methodologies? What is the general basis for each of these techniques (e.g. radioactive decay, stratigraphy, faunal correlation)? - Radioactive decay (potassium-argon dating): when molten rock emerges from a volcano, the argon gas is boiled out of the rock. Any argon present in the rock therefore is from the decay of potassium that occurs at a known and constant rate and therefore, the ratio of potassium to argon can be used to date volcanic rock. This dated layer is then used to estimate the age of fossils found in lower geological layers. - Carbon-14 dating: When an animal or plant dies, carbon-14 decays into the carbon-12 isotope at a constant rate. Fossils can be dated by measuring the ratio of these two isotopes. - Thermoluminescence dating: This is based on an effect of high-energy nuclear particles traveling through rock. - Electron-spin-resonance dating: This is used to determine the age of apatite crystals, an inorganic component of tooth enamel, based on the presence of trapped electrons. - Paleomagnetism: refers to the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field preserved in various magnetic minerals through time What are plesiadipiformes? Describe some of their characteristics, as well as “when” and “where” they occur in the fossil record. Are they (or are they not) good candidates for primate ancestors? Plesiadipiformes are a group of fossil animals found in what is now Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming dating from the Paleocene epoch, 65-54 mya. They varied from tiny, shrew- sized creatures to animals as big as a marmot. They were solitary quadrapedals with a well- developed sense of smell, had variable teeth suggesting a wide range of dietary specializations, did not have binocular vision and most had claws on their hands and feet.
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