Lecture 25 07

Lecture 25 07 - EEP 143 Lecture 25 Valuing Biodiversity...

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EEP 143 Lecture 25 Valuing Biodiversity Re-visit 3 cases introduced last lecture Analyze alternate outcomes What should we wish for?
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Access and Benefit Sharing: Results? Initial optimism LDC countries too small/poor to get most of consumer benefits from medical or agricultural innovations Instead get benefits via royalties or other consideration E.g. Debt forgiveness swap for Amazon forest conservation Merck-INBIO Costa Rican deal: $1M plus royalties as first “success”
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Are deals for access to indigenous products/knowledge sufficient to conserve biodiversity? Logic: Maybe 1/3 of drugs derive from plants Some drugs are worth billions A royalty of 10% would be worth hundreds of millions
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Are deals for access to indigenous products/knowledge sufficient to conserve biodiversity? How as access and benefit sharing worked out? INBIO: no news of successful products Read Cori Hayden (also Shane Greene if interested)
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Case Studies (Koo and Wright 1999) Rosy Periwinkle Pacific Yew Rice ( Oryza nivara ) resistant to brown plant hopper
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Rosy Periwinkle Used in indigenous medicine Specimens collected in Madagascar Contains 2 alkaloids vinblastine increases remission rate from Hodgkin’s disease from 20% to 80% vincristine provides 90% remission rate for childhood leukemia Drugs sold by Eli Lilly (Velban, Oncovin) for more than $200M per year
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Rosy Periwinkle 15 tons of leaves yield 1 oz of Vincristine Reports of depletion of the plant in Madagascar Scant reward to Madagascar What should we conclude?
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Pacific yew tree “weed tree” of pacific Northwest forests Historical use is now gone (what was it?) In 1986, bark extract (initially called Taxol ®) found by novel screening method to be useful for combating ovarian cancer 4 to 6 trees give enough bark for 1 patient
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Pacific yew tree CRADA auction Bristol-Myers Squibb was high bidder Agreed to invest $100M in trials Exclusive partnership with National cancer Institute Cooperation with Forest Service, BLM
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IP note: BMS purchased the trademark of a cough remedy called and stopped others using name; now generically “paclitaxel”
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Lecture 25 07 - EEP 143 Lecture 25 Valuing Biodiversity...

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