History Final Exam Review - History Final Exam Review Part...

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History Final Exam Review Part 1 The Know Nothing Party The party was created out of a nativist movement in the 1850s as a result of fears that cities were becoming overwhelmed with Irish Catholics who took American jobs and threatened American values with Catholicism The party was originally called the American Party and the term “Know Nothing” stemmed from the secrecy of its creation Their platform included strict regulation of immigration, especially Catholics, restricting political office to native born Americans, and bible readings in public schools Its members were mostly white middle-class Protestant The growth of this party indicated that voters had become disillusioned by the two party system and was a precursor to the demise of the Whigs and rise of the Republican party Dawes Severalty Act This act was established in 1887 and allowed the U.S. government to survey Native American tribal land and distribute it out to Indians in plots The Indians were provided with allotments of land in order to get them to live more like white people, each one owning their own plot Its supporters believed that the reservation system was wrong and Native Americans could never be self-sufficient under it The Act resulted in millions of acres of lost land; land not allotted was deemed “surplus” and given to white settlers; Natives didn’t receive large enough plots to be economical The Act attempted to destroy Indian culture and values of unity and replace it with white values of economic independence and a strong nuclear family Social Darwinism This term stems from the late 19 th century during “The Gilded Age” Herbert Spencer applied Darwin’s theory evolution by natural selection to better understand society Social Darwinism says that competition between individuals and groups drives social evolution in human societies Only the fittest can survive in America, the fittest are usually the wealthiest white people; warned unnatural forms of intervention (labor unions, social welfare) were dangerous and doomed to failure Many people applied the idea to races saying that some had to be stronger/better than others; this served as evidence for white superiority (white people being the dominant race) Advocated often claimed “civilized” whites would take the places of “barbarous” dark skinned people; it wasn’t justice but it was destiny
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The Roosevelt Corollary This was Roosevelt’s amendment to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 It stated that only the U.S. can intervene in Central and South America when there is political turmoil or economic affairs need to be stabilized Roosevelt declared the U.S. would have to act as an international police power Roosevelt’s Corollary is just one example of how America was becoming a world power; other examples are expansion of navy, industrial boom, Spanish-America War of 1898, Open Door Policy with China Harlem Renaissance
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