S&TS Quiz1

S&TS Quiz1 - The Golem Ch 2: Theory of Relativity: mass and...

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The Golem Ch 2: Theory of Relativity: mass and energy should be interchangeable. Time, mass, and length are not fixed but are relative to the speed at which things move. - Michelson-Morley ‘aether-drift’ experiment of the 1880s o Showed that light traveled at the same speed in all directions, proving the special theory of relativity o Miller’s 1920s experiments on Mount Wilson, disproving the special theory of relativity o Miller’s 1933 paper reviewing the field and concluding that the evidence for an aether wind was still strong. - Eddington’s 1919 solar eclipse observation of the apparent displacement of stars o Eddington’s expeditions to distant lands to observe the eclipse of 1919 showed that starlight was bent by the sun to the right extent to prove the general theory o Is this because science needs decisive moments of proof to maintain its heroic image? - Theoretical and experimental contributions to a cultural change, a change which was just as much a license for observing the world in a certain way as a consequence of those observations. - “all that was necessary to establish… prediction was a willingness to throw out most of the evidence and the ingenuity to contrive arguments that would justify doing so.” – John Earman and Clark Glymour, 1980 - “They did so in part because they believed the theory; and they believed the theory, again at least in part, because they believed the British eclipse expeditions had confirmed it.” – John Earman and Clark Glymour - No tests viewed on its own was decisive or clear cut, but taken together they acted as an overwhelming movement. Thus was the culture of science changed into what we now count as the truth about space, time, and gravity. - A truth brought about by agreement to agree about new things Ch 7: - Solar neutrinos: sub-nuclear particles produced by nuclear fusion in the sun. The first direct experimental test of stellar evolution theory. Neutrinos interact so little with matter and travel straight out of the sun. Their detection on the earth would tell us what was happening in the core of the sun only 8 minutes earlier. - Ray Davis, Brookhaven National Laboratory tried to detect solar neutrinos o He used a vast tank of chlorine-rich cleaning fluid, the size of an Olympic swimming pool, buried deep underground in a disused mine shaft. Every month he dredges this tank searching for a radioactive form of argon, produced by the reaction of incoming neutrinos with chlorine. They buried the tank to filter particles from outer space, cosmic rays. -
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2008 for the course S&TS 2011 taught by Professor Pinch,t. during the Spring '06 term at Cornell.

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S&TS Quiz1 - The Golem Ch 2: Theory of Relativity: mass and...

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