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2008-04-10.240B.Photovoltaics

2008-04-10.240B.Photovoltaics - Solar energy 4.3 x 1020 J...

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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 1 Solar energy 4.3 x 10 20 J : sunlight energy striking the Earth in 1 hour (120 PW). 4.1 x 10 20 J : global energy consumption in 1 year (13 TW). In 2050 it is projected that we will be at 30 TW. Current solar electricity utilization: 10 -6 of total electricity production/consumption. industry growing at 40%/year. it will take about 40 years to reach a factor of 10 6 . Still expensive compared to conventional non-renewable energies. Source: DOE “Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization” (2005)
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 2 Solar Spectrum (T ~ 5800 K) E max  = 1.4 eV E max  = 2.5 eV E max  = 0.8 eV E max  = 2.0 eV  
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 3 Air Mass (AM) AM 0: Outside of the atmosphere, P AM0 = 1400 Wm -2 AM 1: Surface of the Earth, equator, P AM1 = 1000 Wm -2 AM 1.5 : Surface of the Earth, sun at 41° elevation
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 4 Black body radiation, Planck's law Photon energy flux E max  = 2.82  KT E max  = 4.97  KT Photon number flux E max  = 1.59  KT E max  = 3.92  KT
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 5 Energy flux as a function of wavenumber NASA (TOA: Top Of Atmosphere) E max  = 2.82  KT           = 1.41 eV         = 11400 cm -1            (infrared) Photon energy flux   13300-16100 cm -1    16100-16900 cm -1     16900-17300 cm -1  17300-20200 cm -1    20200-22200 cm -1    22200-26200 cm -1   KT sun  = 5800 K = 0.5 eV
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 6 Photon flux as a function of photon energy DOE, “Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization” 2005 Photon number flux E max  = 1.59  KT         = 0.79 eV            (infrared)   1.65-2.00 eV   2.00-2.10 eV    2.10-2.15 eV    2.15-2.50 eV   2.50-2.75 eV   2.75-3.25 eV 
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 7 Energy flux as a function of wavelength NASA E max  = 4.97  KT         = 2.48 eV         = 500 nm            (green) Photon energy flux 380-450 nm   450-495 nm   495-570 nm    570-590 nm    590-620 nm   620-750 nm
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 8 Photon flux as a function of wavelength McGehee, Goh, “Organic Semiconductors for Low-Cost Solar Cells”, (2006) p.112 Photon number flux E max   = 3.92  KT         = 1.96 eV         = 633 nm            (red) 380-450 nm   450-495 nm   495-570 nm    570-590 nm    590-620 nm   620-750 nm
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Apr 10, 2008 Filipe Ribeiro - 240B 9 Solar Cells FF 1.1 eV 44% Ultimate limit Ultimate limit at E g = 1.1 eV is ~44% Shockley-Queisser (radiative) limit is ~32% Carnot efficiency ~ 95% = 1 – 300K / 5800K
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