TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT - TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT(TQM...

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. This can be achieved by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement, and quality assurance. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees. For most companies today, superior product quality is at the core of their business strategy. For these companies, attaining near-perfect product quality is seen as the principal means of capturing market share in global competition. The prominence of product quality in business strategy for many firms had come from the painful knowledge that you may lose business to lower-priced products, but you win it back with superior product quality. Achieving superior product quality within a business requires a long-term process of changing the fundamental culture of the organisation. This section is about Total Quality Management (TQM), which is the process of redirecting organisation cultures toward superior product quality. Origins of TQM Total quality management has evolved from the quality assurance methods that were first developed around the time of the First World War. The war effort led to large scale manufacturing efforts that often produced poor quality. To help correct this, quality inspectors were introduced on the production line to ensure that the level of failures due to quality was minimized. After the First World War, quality inspection became more commonplace in manufacturing environments and this led to the introduction of Statistical Quality Control 1
(SQC), a theory developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. This quality method provided a statistical method of quality based on sampling. Where it was not possible to inspect every item, a sample was tested for quality. The theory of SQC was based on the notion that a variation in the production process leads to variation in the end product. If the variation in the process could be removed this would lead to a higher level of quality in the end product. After World War Two, the industrial manufacturers in Japan produced poor quality items. In a response to this, the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers invited Dr. Deming to train engineers in quality processes. By the 1950’s quality control was an integral part of Japanese manufacturing and was adopted by all levels of workers within an organization. By the 1970’s the notion of total quality was being discussed. This was seen as company- wide quality control that involves all employees from top management to the workers, in quality control. In the next decade more non-Japanese companies were introducing quality management procedures that based on the results seen in Japan. The new wave of

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