MA+Findings+20+min+-+final

MA+Findings+20+min+-+final - Millennium Ecosystem...

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Millennium Ecosystem  Assessment Findings
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Largest assessment of the health of  Earth’s ecosystems Experts and Review Process Prepared by 1360 experts from 95 countries 80-person independent board of review editors Review comments from 850 experts and governments Includes information from 33 sub-global assessments Governance Called for by UN Secretary General in 2000 Authorized by governments through 4 conventions  Partnership of UN agencies, conventions, business, non- governmental organizations with a multi-stakeholder board of  directors 
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Focus: Ecosystem Services  The benefits people obtain from ecosystems  
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Focus:  Consequences of Ecosystem Change  for Human Well-being
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MA Framework Direct Drivers Indirect Drivers Ecosystem Services Human Well-being Direct Drivers of Change Changes in land use  Species introduction or removal Technology adaptation and use External inputs  (e.g., irrigation)  Resource consumption Climate change Natural physical and biological  drivers  (e.g., volcanoes) Indirect Drivers of Change Demographic Economic  (globalization, trade,  market and policy framework) Sociopolitical  (governance and  institutional framework) Science and Technology Cultural and Religious Human Well-being and Poverty Reduction Basic material for a good life Health Good Social Relations Security Freedom of choice and action
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1. Ecosystem Changes in Last 50 Years 2. Gains and Losses from Ecosystem Change Three major problems may decrease long-term benefits Degradation of Ecosystem Services Increased Likelihood of Nonlinear Changes Exacerbation of Poverty for Some People 3. Ecosystem Prospects for Next 50 Years 4. Reversing Ecosystem Degradation MA Findings - Outline
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Finding #1 Over the past 50 years, humans have changed  ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any  comparable period of time in human history This has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible  loss in the diversity of life on Earth
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Unprecedented change: Ecosystems  More land was converted to cropland since 1945 than in the  18th and 19th centuries combined 20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and 20% degraded  in the last several decades 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several  decades Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960 Withdrawals from rivers and lakes doubled since 1960
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Unprecedented change: Biogeochemical  Cycles Since 1960: Flows of biologically available  nitrogen in terrestrial  ecosystems doubled Flows of phosphorus tripled > 50% of all the synthetic nitrogen fertilizer ever used has been used since 1985 60% of the increase in the atmospheric
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course ECON 131 taught by Professor Karp during the Fall '07 term at Berkeley.

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MA+Findings+20+min+-+final - Millennium Ecosystem...

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