05 - The most important fact in classical genetics:...

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MCB140 02-01-08 1 The most important fact in classical genetics: Mendel’s first and second law are both explained by the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis
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MCB140 02-01-08 2 What is being omitted for lack of time 1. The rediscovery of Mendel’s laws by Correns, Tschermak, and de Vries. 2. The finding – by Cuenot and by Castle – that Mendel’s laws also apply to mammals, such as mice and guinea pigs.
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MCB140 02-01-08 3 Fig. 3.7
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MCB140 02-01-08 4 William Bateson “… he privately subsidized his small book, Mendel’s Principles of Heredity: A Defence and he sent copies to all of the leading students of heredity to make sure that Mendel would not suffer another 35 years of neglect.” Carlson Mendel’s Legacy
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MCB140 02-01-08 5 Bateson 1902
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MCB140 02-01-08 6 Bateson 1902 αλληλος = "each other"
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MCB140 02-01-08 7 Archibald Garrod (1902) Higher frequency of children with alkaptonuria (urine turns dark on standing and alkalinization) from consanguineous marriages. Why? “There is no reason to suppose that mere consanguinity of parents can originate such a condition as alkaptonuria in their offspring, and we must rather seek an explanation in some peculiarity of the parents, which may remain latent for generations…” http://www.esp.org/foundations/genetics/classical/ag-02.pdf
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MCB140 02-01-08 8 Ah! “It has recently been pointed out by Bateson that the law of heredity discovered by Mendel offers a reasonable account of such phenomena. …” Garrod (1902) Lancet 2: 116.
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MCB140 02-01-08 9 Garrod (1902) Lancet 2: 116.
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MCB140 02-01-08 10 Walter Sutton, 1902-03
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MCB140 02-01-08 11 Sutton’s conclusions 1. Chromosomes have individuality. 2. Chromosomes occur in pairs, with members of each pair contributed by each parent. 3. The paired chromosomes separate from each other during meiosis, and the distribution of the paternal and maternal chromosomes in each homologous pair is independent of each other.
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MCB140 02-01-08 12
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MCB140 02-01-08 13
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MCB140 02-01-08 15
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MCB140 02-01-08 16 Thomas Hunt Morgan, the first native- born American to win the Nobel Prize, founder of modern genetics
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Bridges Muller Morgan Sturtevant
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course MCB 140 taught by Professor Urnov during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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05 - The most important fact in classical genetics:...

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