Week 15 Readings - Week 15 Readings Chapter 18...

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Week 15 Readings Chapter 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management Forces for Change More and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment. This requires these organizations to adapt. Six forces tat are acting as stimulants for change: o Nature of the workforce: adjust to the multicultural environment. o Technology: computers, cell phones, PDAs are now commonplace. o Economic shocks: quadrupling of oil prices. o Competition: heightened competition means that organizations need to defend themselves. o Social trends: trends don’t remain static. o Work politics: globalization, September 11, Iraqi War led to creation of backup systems, employee security, employee stereotyping and profiling, and post-terrorist-attack anxiety. Managing Planned Change Change : making things different. Planned change : change activities that are intentional and goal oriented. o Examples: efforts to stimulate innovation, empower employees, introduce work teams. o Goals: It seeks to improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. It seeks to change employee behavior. If an organization is to survive, it must respond to changes in its environment. Change agents : persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. Resistance to Change Resist to change provides a degree of stability and predictability to behavior. o If there was no resistance, organizational behavior would take on the characteristics of chaotic randomness. o Resistance can be a source of functional conflict. o Resistance hinders adaptation and progress. Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate or deferred. o It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Change is imposed and employees immediately complain. o Implicit efforts are more subtle: loss of loyalty to firm, increased absenteeism and more difficult to recognize. o Deferred actions surface months after the change. Overcoming Resistance to Change
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Education and Communication Resistance can be reduced through communication to help employees see the logic of change. Participation It’s difficult for individuals to resist a change decision in which they participated. Facilitation and Support When employees’ fear and anxiety are high, employee counseling and therapy, new-skills training, or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. Drawbacks: time consuming, expensive, no assurance of success. Negotiation Exchange something of value for a lessening of the resistance. Drawbacks: possibility of being blackmailed. Manipulation and Cooptation Manipulation: refers to covert influence attempts. o Twisting and distorting facts, withholding undesirable information, etc.
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