road project - Content pages 1 Introduction-1 2 Highway...

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Content pages 1. Introduction------------------------------------------------------------ 1 2. Highway Alignment and Route Selection------------------------ 3 2.1. Route Selection -------------------------------------------------- 3 2.2. Road Alignment -------------------------------------------------- 3 3. Geometric Design Considerations--------------------------------- 4 3.1 General Considerations ------------------------------------- 4 3.2 Design Standards -------------------------------------------- 4 3.3 Terrain Classification ---------------------------------------- 5 3.4 Right of way ------------------------------------------------- 5 3.5 Factors in selection best route ------------------------------ 5 3.6 Horizontal and Vertical Alignment ------------------------ 6 4. Geometric Design of Road and its Analysis-------------------- 7 4.1 . Design of Horizontal Curve -------------------------------------7 4.2. Super elevation and widening of road -------------------- 9 4.3. Design of vertical Curve ---------------------------------- 12 5. Earthwork---------------------------------------------------------- - 14 5.1 Area Computation ------------------------------------------ 14 5.2 Volume computation in tabular form --------------------- 14 5.3 Introduction about mass haul diagram ------------------- 14 5.4 Determination of earthwork cost ------------------------- 14 6. Diagrams ------------------------------------------------------------ 15 6.1 Natural profile ---------------------------------------------- 15 6.2 Mass haul diagram ----------------------------------------- 15 6.3 Road plan and Drainage ------------------------------------ 15 0
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1. Introduction A road is a path established over land for the passage of vehicles, people, and animals. Roads provide dependable pathways for moving people and goods from one place to another. They range in quality from dirt paths to concrete-paved multilane highways. Roads are used by various forms of transportation, such as trucks, automobiles, buses, motorcycles, and bicycles. Roads allow trucks to move goods from points of production, such as fields and factories, directly to markets and shopping centers. Private individuals rely on roads for safe and efficient automobile, motorcycle, and bicycle travel. Fire departments, medical services, and other government agencies depend on an organized system of roads to provide emergency services to the public in times of need. The earliest roads evolved from animal paths and served as trails for early hunters. Paths eventually grew around primitive settlements, and as trade grew, longer routes were developed to transport food and other important materials. The use of wheeled vehicles encouraged construction of better roads. Modern methods of road construction were first developed in the 18th century. Innovations of the time included waterproof surfaces and better drainage systems. Modern engineers make use of a variety of materials and construction techniques to build roads that can handle the high volumes and stresses of modern automobile and truck traffic. There are many different types of roads, from multilane freeways and expressways to two-way country roads. One important quality of a road is known as control of access. This term describes how vehicles are allowed to enter and exit a road. By controlling access to a road, the road can support more traffic at higher speeds. Roads can be classified into three broad categories: highways, urban or city streets, and rural roads. Each type of road controls access to different degrees. Each type also differs in location, the amount of traffic it can safely support, and the speed at which traffic can safely travel. Urban streets, which cover cities, towns, and most suburbs, allow vehicles to access properties such as homes and businesses.
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