Phil 102 - Phil 102 Russell Philosophy is the free and...

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Phil 10201/26/2017°RussellPhilosophy is the free and impartial contemplation of the universeImpartial Contemplation aims only for accurate awareness of the objects it studiesThe nature of philosophyoFree contemplation is consciousness of objects independent ofall subjective factorsoContemplation is sustained, careful thinkingoPhilosophy is valuable because it enables us to become conscious of real possibilities of which we would otherwise be unawareConsciousness becomes less arrogant and less dogmaticIt exposes consciousness to objects that are awesome and wonderful°Plato: The ApologySocrates describes varies kinds of philosophical lives and exemplifies one of them, argues philosophical life is worth living3 types of philosophers describedolife devoted to knowledge of the natural worldolife devoted to knowledge of human virtueolife devoted to knowledge, truth, and the best possible state of the soul3 traditional Athenian livesolife devoted to political powerolife devoted to poetryolife devoted to craftSocratic WisdomoNot claiming to know what one doesn’t knowoCompatible with claiming one knows nothingThe value of socratic philosophy:oHumility vs. hubris (exaggerated pride/self confidence)oTruth vs. delusionoAttaining the good vs. the appearance of attaining the goodoAn examined life vs. A life led in ignorance of oneself and the worldoA life filled with purpose vs. a meaningless life
Philosophical theology01/26/2017°What is a God?
°Do any Gods exist?°If some Gods exist, how many exist?°°What can human beings know about the Gods? How can they know it?Western philosophers focus on Christian God°Traditional Christian conception of God:God is perfect, omnipotent (all powerful), omniscient (all knowing), omnibenevolent (always good) , and the creator and ruler of all that exists.°Theism: God (as defined above) existsAnselm’s ontological argumentoUses deductive reasoning to argue that God is the greatest being and he must exist in realityStarts with certain hypothesis or premise that is true and draws a conclusion based on those premisesGod is, by definition, the being than which nothing greater exists in realityo1. Contemplate Godo2. God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived and a being greater than can be conceivedo3. Therefore, one cannot conceive of god as not existingP1: everyone understands the though of something thanwhich nothing greater can be thoughP2: Everyone who understands a thought has it in their mindC1: Everyone has the thought of something than which nothing greater can be thought in their mindP3: If someone thinks that God does not exist in reality then it is possible for her to think of something greater than that than which nothing greater can be thoughtP4: it is impossible to think of something greater than that than which nothing greater can be thought

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