Apr29_Biogeography - Integrative Biology 200A...

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Integrative Biology 200A “PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS” University of California, Berkeley Kipling Will- 29 April 08 Biogeography--Why things are where they are.-- The field that attempts to document and understand the spatial patterns of organisms in the past and present and develop process explanations for variation in distribution. I. Ecological Biogeography A. Typically deals with relatively recent patterns and interactions with an ecological, physiological and phenological emphasis. 1. From this view questions addressed might be like “What allows a species to occur in one area and prevents it from expanding into other areas?” B. Community based. C. Can involve paleontological data, so is not restricted to currently extant populations. D. Studies often involve the impact of human activities; succession theory; the dynamics of communities and populations; fire ecology; restoration ecology; invasive species; species pulses or waves; island biogeography. e.g., Elias, S.A., Berrnan, D., Alfimov, A. 2000. Late Pleistocene Beetle Faunas of Beringia: Where East meets West. Journal of Biogeography. 27:1349-1~63. II. Historical Biogeography A. Usually involves older patterns inferred by looking at clades (often as species and higher taxa) 1. How species accumulate (or are lost) 2. How biotas come into being B. Focus on why lineages are represented in certain areas and not others and why is a pattern of distributions frequently repeated in different lineages. C. Typically area relationships and general patterns of diversity are emphasized over single taxon distributions. e.g., Marshall, C. J., Liebherr, J.K. 2000. Cladistic biogeography of the Mexican transition zone. Journal of Biogeography. 27( 1 ):203-216. III. Brief Historical overview of “periods” and discoveries A. At the time of a limited view of dynamics and diversity 1. Creation myths, dispersal from Noah's ark, etc. 2. Little understanding beyond local flora/fauna B. Age of exploration 1. 17th century led to discovery of too many species for the Ark 2. Realization that environmentally similar but distantly isolated regions have distinct assemblages of organisms (Buffon's Law) 3. Islands have lower diversity 4. Similar floristic zonation (Humbolt) C. 19th century, advances in geology and evolutionary theory 1. Lyell, Darwin, Wallace, Sclater, Hooker, etc. 2. Abandonment (by most) of the idea of static distribution and immutability of species. 3. Landbridges/megacontinents (e.g. Hooker, Wallace) vs. dispersal (e.g. Darwin)
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Apr29_Biogeography - Integrative Biology 200A...

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