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Unformatted text preview: Integrative Biology 200A “PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS” Spring 2008 University of California, Berkeley Kipling Will- 28 Feb Names and More Names: Folk taxonomies, “kinds” and “particular kinds” -learned by memorization in preliterate societies -Ancient Greek/Roman hand-copied manuscripts -Printing press and expanded exploration increased the distribution/adoption of classifications and initiated a significant increase in the species diversity recognized. Linnaeus used the tools available to him to basically update the regional taxonomy (northern Europe) - Simplification and standardization was applied to the system in use. The system: - “names” were paragraph long description, diagnosis and identification tool written in Latin. - Common and well known kinds were already frequently referred to by the genus name, e.g., Crocus , Iris , Narcissus . Particular kinds were sometimes referred to using a binomial, e.g., Iris sylvestris.- Linnaeus used the binomial “nicknames” uniformly and still provided the more protracted “name”. The binomial shortcut caught on fast and names proliferated. - more foreign material and better microscopes and lenses. - “renaming” species not previously given binomials - emending names not properly formed - the result was chaos Codes and More Codes: Various rules were proposed, even by Linnaeus, none were applied generally. -The first general use code was the Strickland Code (1842). It was intended for plants and animals. - Split between Zoologist and Botanists and in 1867 Candolle and others developed a separate set of rules. - Dall (1877) combined code. - International Congress of Geology (1881) code for fossils - American Ornithologists Union (1886) code for birds - International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (in ICBN then ICNB, 1947 (dropped) 1980) (Future editions to be called the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes) International code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN): Stems from the Candolle code but was first created in 1905. (Americans kept using N.L.Britton’s code for about 25 years). Current edition published in 2006. The code is here http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm International code of Zoological Nomenclature (“The Code” often as ICZN, but this acronym formally is for the commission not the code, I use it below for brevity.): Draws on the Strickland code but officially dates from 1889 International congress of Zoology, subsequently published in 1905. Currently, fourth edition published in 1999 (effective 2000) is in use....
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course IB 200 taught by Professor Lindberg,mishler,will during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08