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Lect 4 web - (11ml II q ‘th-V a-LANDQ LAWNINCk Il‘lOdlc...

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Unformatted text preview: \ (11ml II q . . ‘th-V a-LANDQ LAWNINCk Il‘lOdlc Table of the Elements 5...} am“, “new” Momma alkali mctals alnnuic anva nurnhcr I- Mrighx l, h J1 ' ,n . ¥ 3 :1 the cart mcl- s 2 “J.- 14 E‘C‘ _ ’ H mt”! transnuonal mctals .— “' t L w ‘ “a 3 on 51" h “"‘d other metals 5 um um um blue liqm I“ g» V ‘ __ Q-nxlmicafly 'I B N O n u 2 w - mfi‘i‘im (pr noble gases h ".2 2-2 EEEE 1. a. 21 «3-22 «9123 sun-‘24 519-125 543-025 53-327 unza 5:.“29 us: 30 131:, 3‘- ...Is. Mn 59 29 u.- 92 z:- e: E 37 .9 39 “’1‘” 91:: ‘Q mate‘s man‘s IMOI‘T Iocn.“a nxn ‘ _, a Emm Ifim m- ' I a a. I . c. 9... .. ha. 12 19’ 2E 55 6.. an .53. '1'! I In , Be mmc q non metals or H ' B9 “’m‘o‘fzfmios aw 196 :“HD? ‘2‘“ no ‘2‘“ 109,.”“110 ‘27"111 Waltz ‘27" r a A « [FL-i; [HE I] ME: ME: mm um um mm» m» m?» m» Pm w W Rum...- mun Slfizt'EI-m Wm 0-1-03 Ito‘s-m u) l‘."l- Lush"..- hrhx-\ Nun-1a] [JI-nu xxx) "up 1 4;-l-.‘<;-I l' Campasman'ul :ne ' Human Ehde nquHmm-CE mr 119% Hair? cum-um Emma-415 m H . Ea - LAFLTH'E mum. manta-mu: animus arm ATflriffiPHI-ZEE 12' 25-5 JUPI'IIIC Wciyu ELL-uni; _ Wcighl: C- EL-b Irll'lbllfl' - Elmurfl. Number Elm-n:nl.' Faun: H 1.4 :5 flAygcn {D} 49.5 Chi-win: NJ] 111 ' 1.: Silicnn [5n - 1m :5 Phcqrhuru: qr} I11 '3" 9-31 a} .fildminw'n mu- ?_=- 15 flu-Immunity: {Mn} am- [5 $.22 2:. [In-n (Fe: 4.7 :- gaum-un {:1 m3 ' 2:} Caluiurn (cu 3.4 11 Sulfur :51 um- GI Iii-'53 n 5.1mm {my 1.6- 5:5 .2u‘illrn. [m1 um H I} HE I'3- Fla-mam {In 2.: : Hilmfin m: am. -' l1 nimmummu LE 9 . Flunrin-HIF‘II am 5 .’IZI.-|.‘.|5 I I-Lill'd-ngn {Hp 03 2: Hid-Ed. {NH 4191 m. ' n 113 22 Titanium-Hi; [IL-5 33 Eli-unlium {Sill MI: ' ' M1 cum“ Ilium M1: I:I_m lull 1:1I1EI'E CL'D T SYMBOL ELEMEN‘I zrgfl DELI!" U" "U?! BEHYLLFJM i’ 3 0 L I“ Ifll nu EEEE Bflfiflze2QEZQEEII:9E8>@@[email protected][email protected]@;[email protected] quQOUnuu NEO VJ “ACNE S..l\1 Ha N_U\'I‘JUM I ARGON Pornxséuiic CALCIUM H SCANDIUL‘ TITMXUM SOME T"0-TIIIRI).\' or Llcli'l‘LST ELE.“EJ"I). or 2| out o" the “to! 3‘ than“ i: I-r .wtindir l-bk. .l’- m-w kn"- Io be 0-— .auu-l lot anion-l "Kc. 'l'I-v-oo 1| pI-o mclybde-u— an. ‘2]. tin (1‘0- 5"! and Iodine (No. 53) conning-c II..- nun-I Ian -I Ike 2& o.— Mm bi wuor and made cam Inca nod mod Prob”; onus“. PM; mused: Inst: Essmlial 0'! mm olmn; tun-salon mm‘ Rambo: rot manic mm. floqulod 0:: many org-r»: compounds. Roqu‘rod tar «auto: and organic com (ho-v2! Inchrnt-buaossmi- cal-lantuam ol «rum and bone ma and unused. I I “imp!!! autumnal-13’ cation. 1 2 Wm In- .uzlwily of many wanna-sun chanting!!!” I3 Es“me undo: stucy. i¢ Posg'bto 31w man a amzrocomty m In be m“ h cmcus. 15 Ema-in! It" Wemwwmuaum. 16 Wk" plum mdmermms. 17 Punt-pal canals: and .xu-collular Orion 13 Incn card unused. 19 Principal canal-r canon. 20 Maia: mpone-Il of bone: med lot so!" .nzrnos. 21 Prcbab 7 M3. 22 onbably med. 23 Gama-I .1 tom m w m w. and ran. Esmflial i! higher “IIIII; (filled Io m 0! “viii. 25 Wed It. act“.in cl smal mm 28 Mom W“ Irma-on maul m ml [arm and many may-mos. 27 flaunt-c lo: ICIle 0! 'ml W In mm Ba. 28 Emnmw an“: IM. 29 Essen” In onldalivo and mo enzymes and Win. 30 Requited ‘0' can-my 01 M m. 31 Prousoy med. ' 32 "(chair “sod. 33 Prabahly mod. III-t. 3. Essential 10¢ live: Imam 4-2 lhqmvod For sanity a! mu m. 50 Essen”! in rats; 'urction unknown, 53 Esxo'Iu-al mmuunl 0! [ho Il'yvoid [wanna-nus- wnliol O'CIIEDUM which are hue enclosed In EO'OI’QJ Ian-H. II ‘4 pouihle cI-t ulll other Il‘Iu clean-n. will Inc. “I a- be (ml‘.'. The not! Ilker candid-ta. or- aluminum. nickel 0" annual-om 11-: C'QCICII boron already appear. to b-c menthol Io: come plan-us. mm mm: madam A V’“ - E' Space-filling: moat“ ol hydrant-Ii: empos'um ‘0' ‘n. 2:;itfi‘ms carbon, nixmgeu. oxygen. plump o- - Hum" Bod rux and sulfur status. 7 elemcn' (pb““) 49.! aamomcs or Twmrv MOST com 5103! cLszuarrs IN 63 gng‘c" I", _ (LARTH‘S CR 051- INCLUDING OCEANS AND ATsiOSPI-Icnz 0 25-5 tum,“ 149 . locnic Weight (3 9,5 nit m‘cn 0.27‘ unbcr - Elcmcm N ‘ .‘ :alc'nu'n 9.073 8 (In—’31"! (O) , — . ‘ 3033046 . u Silicon (so) - 25-7 :5 Phosphorus (r) 0_I 0" 0-31 , ium 093} x J Anna-um. (Al) 15 25 Mung-nae (Mu) om p 0.22 ““hcf'mhflm’ 033° 26 Iron (Fe) 4.7 s can-boo (c; 0.08 - 9 n“: on" 20 Caiaiuu: (ca) 3.4 I 2 Sulfur (8) one 0' 0-03 .hmhum on” I I Wm (NJ) 2.6 $6 ,B-rium (Ba) 0.06 K 0.06 ' . l9 Potassium: (K) 2.4 7 Nikon:- (N) 0.03 ' 12 Magnesium (Mg) I .9 9 fluorine (F) 0.0) S .'D.OS l Hm” (H) 0.9 23 Nidtcl (Ni) (L02 N. v o 03 22 Tmium (In) 0.6 38 Strontium (‘5‘) 0.02 ' an when Ms: 01" —H ' H/‘L’ \\ u o O u o “ H \ ’ o_?..o~ \\c/O_,At-u-H "any: alcohol "Hez—ou ' $ 83., I 3.91 H - c —o -W ” u - C-ooI-I ‘ v whvl =Xcohol H C -——-Ol>{ o ‘l ’ I . —c .— - P— a 'F’ H k H o J—t -<-’-—° " -° H ' Cl c I H a-” l O -H Chlfll'fl‘-Ill.l !I—-C~~<.'l . I! . I‘ll.I J-IIIH Willi! I'JJIEII'HIEEI. - - lu-ru-rhll. 1|q_- l-\.I_-..- -.-.. ML": E'-1[. .IIJI:..- 22 :I-.rr-:u.-._:,- Lflfln-H-L- u_|1- lfli: I :IHF UH—Eml'fill'lnl: arr- ll'lrr'.':l'r':1l.nfi - '-LF 4-1" H2 l-lll' IJIEIIILIU" {'rll I'-Hf_ I-I.'I:' fir Ell“: Jinn-I IJId-r'. FIII |rl:: _:. 11:5: Ezra-jars..ch I n1;u':=I1L'uI1rI I I! JIrr-l- '-"-'.I-.n.~r l1:I=1 |:I--.-II- diva-L'LL-IJ Ina-h": I2":- In. LL: |_II :.LI. :1 il r m .I :l-cl1l Innnfl hn'r n'u- I': |n1ll -I|-‘ r'n-r-'I-: =I~= H'I-LI Ht'l'll. I:I.- :I1-r I ne-I I_-I.L TILu-I'I; Il_ p.‘|_:l_l|_|-I_'|_':l I:I'u_- U'-'-'II'I I'-'_I-.-.-I.IIIII:.: ' “:an .1'I'ri'__:'.'I-'lu~.= _|'_I .'I:-'\-:" II_ 'II-:_ _ -='|I'I II . L'='.II:.'.I'I :II1:I.r:-:I'-I-:: hth-IC' luv-lur- cu :II-::Il. -:-:I 2-! lI'lIZII Jn: rue-5. [Jr-LIIth -I r-r :In- I ' lill-ID. _IIIEtI :I I:'th:'n-I Izl' rI'urI- -.-—:|I:.— '|'_I-III_| fiflll-‘lli‘ I"II :3 ul' EJLILI'. F-"ILII'iL'u L'In-‘Iulh'l I'_I'.' IE'II; "IE -.'-::I'I_-._I:IIZ"-:-:-:. HIJI LII-a- .uu-un I'm-:1- -:|:' |:I'I!: -II-'_' I'll-rh rapid-I II-nn - I-"'-C| .1.l|_'.i2i:J- SLLIII'r I'II': ‘CI'I'I'K- 3.."I-'Il:ll."i'll_'E'-_ ..!-I":I.-IzI-- vryrlil1ln'1_ :-'.-II= '- 'II-' Iln-ll I II I rI ' -I:I-'.'.-|::r':l :1-1 :I "III L1IIIHJJI-IIA II'I:II Earl-re LIZ-:3- ll|-- fll'fl-IIII'II'Ii'h-‘I- "E'IL'i' 1u-5IL-n. 'rIu-EZIrlr1.I-I-\._"J_I'_.-I.' Catt-ml I'll-iil'a-IEIE'J; rI-e'iLr Luke- {III-H'— rccll-uLIL-u all-re advancing a1: a red-:- ht'J-‘fln'lj 5EjElJ=25rfi" Eli-I'J'Irctat: I:II1sI-.. |-..I |=|-.Il I-.-I:I :IIII:I . :I" :IIII'TIIEE: =I'ur- .‘rJ'n-rl p1|' 1 . 1" J I'.-I\:'I'II'- _ _ _ 'I L'.'I -_ u' l'L'IIIJIIiL" iI IL-cluly III :I-Ifll: I...“ -I IL“. UHJ - 5|“ n"... I _ _ - - I ' . -— I111L' LII-E. «5| HID I'1 Jur 'uul' II"- I-Ilr'IIJ Ii'I r‘ilJl II. ."I.rII-\.:.—I-:':I - J “I, hiya-l1 |._-\-._- an “of. . '11,...1. I‘1-.391 ' "i.l':- _'I 'I.-I'r_I,-' Jar-Plant. I'M-In: laur-I ."rnkfrri';n-.n..fi Ira“; -.IH ! II'. II'II. -|---.-I-: -_-IJ IEIE‘IF _hIIZI1-'-_I.3'I'_.: I rD'iCII' a. :IHI' LI 5 uuu2u I-ull Ehl- I:-'-I.I1:Ilrl..l I -'-'- ' "-' “LE-"Ll: '—'-"“" |-'~'= til-:I. Hr‘ rII' ':II_,:I'n1I:-.II:I1 bus-l: :Lu-:I -:III'."'I' | _ I I-: I---I'I". ' 5-‘I2l:l I2I:'. I‘i _|-_.- 711' I'l'lelL ! u _ I ul.|_ Ian I'--. r-E'l: -|I' I.I1-.- 17.1 Fl__.| i5 5,. Play-"3H .J|||..-|_||1 Lu. |5|-_.I.-.._-| |."-r- I --I.-I|-. -| -'=|-'- -|-'\-5.e-'| - c. 23'": IJI:.-:'I :III :I! _TIIDIIILIrI'IIlIn. .‘I-E'” I'. 1: {TrI-=h-I.I.-r -I'\-- ':-_I |_II'I.' di-Lr'h uni-1F: I.- II--| III: E'Ill. :I'\-LII!I'.I1I::I-. I . I I '_-,r_ '.'i-.-II:I' r nun-9;: ciLII-z' . II -..--_-I_;n;-r___-.|_.|-— ri. lulu: “Isl-t: Fr.I:I1'-rI-I:In:l hat}: :na-zu iI: :se-c :L :- I'IC "'=-I_'l ' I'III IIII IIII.-|r| H.._|I'_Ii.| '| |jl_|-r| HIIII i|.'.II:E'\- III-LI“- III-III-u-‘pII-II-rua-i ilnucl unnu- '-"Ir\-r- II_'I'..-IJr.'_'I':‘-I i: I"- In”- |1rJu -I_-._,: '.-I-"_'I.--I- '5: I II'-I=:.'II ' ' -"-.' InI' IPI' .nfi-l IF: I I|:I. nli _ . :1" di "in I:_rr Lu” ir.'1_L.:_lufJEE-_ :I=r~| yarn—u:- murmur: flu.- IIIH IIIHI '-'.-JI'I1 - . -_-I:.:IJ II.I I-Iil'l 'II"- I:I.|-:-I- I-I-.' Ecru-I'1? ‘1'}. 5”” =’-'“-- Thu" “'J'n" TE“ — L'I'IIZE'I'EEI! III-E! h'lltll 1—|-r-|1r\-r i|1 |-_|||1|'i|'_I-:||:.: _:I r- _:- mun-$1 n1 I.I -\_'III\_II-: iII|_: II'IIH 'I'I-lll 'II :I war: :Ir'ifi: Early LIIaL-lhu HL-IJ_ II - h.‘ .. - " ' -" 'Inu. nununns; was. m- : -"'\-'l.l'-"- l'J‘I-JIL IILIE'i I'L-Jllllllr ' !-:-I'. 'IWHI-I-z' Ir: “DITE' I" It. I: H II"? “I” 1‘;’ll;l]-I'E:I;Tll'::fln:: 5 ml“: 'IEII:IT_:.JH_:__- fll Ililflfllln IIIl-if“ -‘I“IIJ III-\L' wuln: was; EL'E'II. I'I-Ll'u'llllu: "I" .1: _1. [_nllqulflfifil llnnlh ' :JI:I\J IZIaJl'l-ihll-i E-JLM nrlhra cann- 5...:- Ix._-.I-_ [irrri‘lallfi I'LI'IID-E‘IE 111:" as. "LIL. “_u.” .._— [Huh L“. “NH—Erna ll"'-'|Ili"'I-‘l “I-cILL'I upland I:\I".'I":l' (hr: |T.:I|'I:|1- 1:1I'—-=1-. turns-Jug Hung-Hun Il'. rn-I:]r_- I-r-— rI'Ifl'.-I:: IIII:- I1-I'I-II-e-crultnl II:I-I: :n Ij _I|jl_| u-HLH |.|.| 1'l":l :' I_II'_‘I:II'I:' :-I Ich ‘.I'II:- I'.'I.I I .‘l i'lr. |'..'l UP I :I kfi'l‘l lil- . IL__ L1H“ I” “10 Elnwnfllhfilflnl LI'I'I:I I_'I.II_Ir I.'I_-.'." sac-LI: Slew-'2 Da'n'ifi. .- i { Ir'ICIl'fil'rl'ie-c I!I.II' I'.=Irl n|1|:.- [- |-:*--JI.. I_'..—|l:|:b_iI:-: :1 Fr— 1|:u' p- 5-" "Ii-"IIII H rulhsl “uh _ Jl'l-"ZD-ilI-‘l. '-'|‘.:-iI:-IE Earth”: II'EI in lhr- lh-l' fifllllli J'III= II|--. 'u'r'fllkIn-IFHIIIILRIIEIII2'I1I - mf'rlfi-EFRJDIJ'j 5'1” L‘E'd "ulflflll‘: “1 "I _'-'-'-5'“- J_'I-..-\.II.i-\-_-I. Will-I'— "H'JI'F IJII-«Z-II _:II'IEr. l"-:l-:":Ill|=: “rug-“cl "'In'u '“ I I' i'I Il'ne' 'InicI-zltr- r.‘l'.='| IIaI'h:-n:-—5._-;u|' 'Jlunh-F "fin'flh‘ "nr‘. n'h'r'r “Til—“l '-'-'h 'h- It! "=|-|I'l:-' II I. I I; .rL lIII:- Furlle nu- I-CIIDII1 nr Efiln_hl_""' h—"HL'JIE'LW‘IJH :r-il r""'-"" J'-"'- :‘I' " I” -='=I||=- la." no HUIIJ. "AU “1.1- L—v'iII-c'anI- "HE-“J- II 5-: '."‘-!"I-':I.' I'nII-u: gal-_I l;|_.|-_ ulna-_- Ih'll‘f{:l'l1'fl'lll Hjlzl‘ kg. ll”; 5;.“ I.ILII Lllrf! I"I:'III: I'I EI':I5-u:_-5 [Iflfl IHIUIDI'flafilénI-c ll: 1I1rh hnllnn'u ‘J'IIL- Enu'fll'nifi. I It'll-"h: -:.II' nurrI-z :II:I'LI::I'I'\-rE1I."':1 l-."I h' .|"I Ia-I. Wale-c .Z'IFlrh'll'iPI'II :_- -La1«:fi s.- Rascue ]_hreaten5 I III_'Il.'.-I.II'i-C_ L-_'L'I'r'IL I'ILE'C 'III LI'I-I.‘ sugar Illn- $LZLIII'I u-J' UM;- :_E‘U'E .‘I-I-CHIIIIHE _IJI'A'E rnnfi_ rlbiIlL- wur :|| u:|rJ EEPIIIIIII; i3:- huILlufi'IE. . HfilfilVL'I. IIZ'IJII-IIIII-I lll'iLlH'IIII'HiI rI:-r'II' EPEflF ill |II1I:- an: nWI'wl-u: I IJiEIF IJLI_' _--:I ur- J-IJ'JIHH. Whli‘h Il-E'II'HE II-‘JI. 'Llr- |1_--.:|_|I| n. rl'lr- ='-:I'I-I-'.|='..I'=I-'-F'.'.'I-= :er I.‘|LII I}- ulhc' IHI '.I.'irl'. II'II"I-'h- L'IJI IpL-I Il.|.|_ Plflfllb. Th-I: Ill-Elllllallly 11f -:-.urr:-il uric-unle I:I=-- L'II-LIL'I-LH IIIuI' .III.II1Ii|-'11-.__ I'ifllllfhl-E; ||:I-_- -.-..--_|_._-|- I1‘l' I'1-KEEP”. 2"” IL'I'. wh—I-I: I-LH'IJJF ._|-.:-' dll'h' I". Rial—1:5 Icl III-:- Inn-"turn n-r Ih-r- u.‘:II-r-" Eli-i -:‘I rlhEI'IILIfi I.—I.':.-::-:. IIIr'r'.r.' r.:-II_.gi|g-. 11nd”. LIIL LI'IL- HLII'FHE'I' hl--:.'I:.II1|: I:I-'JI'\-:: '5. IIlIi:I_.I |"J ul'll [hi—.CIL'IZIth. 'l'hl" FEITHIIl-EiliI-c- III'IHIL'I L'II' ll-I- IIII'iC-a-C— -|'I'II I.‘ ur rail—'Iils. IJIIJII.I3I.:.'\-iI-\. raj-.2 Ir. L-II ='| "'||I:"!' I|:-:! II'-I-:'I'4.-=a:n_'-|.:-in_'- Ilr-:: ur II"-I- Tail-I watt-r all-:1 Fill: u-.-.--- :I'E'IJI'IJ1.-= .:.r lir-D_ ||u In-LI flan-lg:- .I"'.. FELIHIIJuII- :I |-.-I anmln! '.|-I"II.- Ilua: I'JIDIIII'“ nxfr-nsn-xn |'.|"'fill.lr|'l'| -_-.-n|-|.c .34 “Pub. nIdth-I-H. IZDIIIP' 4H: |_|.._-"|-..- ur ||:|:: w:.1IJi.'Ir.:. II'SlL-L'C-ullflfl 'n. i-z-rr-zra-I r_.r rf-WI'EIIIIZII'EF. II HI' II' '- :-_n-IE III:-I: I'—=:r- 'I.I:._ I'll-II I:I:‘- uwuf f: LIIIJI lIIIIEI'IZII_Il'.._1 l.=-:"I:'l__‘ll:llil_l'l L'tli'c'mflly Ul'rlfll' -: :I1 . :II1II-I'I‘I:"'I pII-erI- 'I'nl'tl'u'u " lu_ build. 'IiII: E-.--\'_-I' 45cm. arr-4.3.: II-“-.-III'I|_'r -:II'I'_'-II .I.II'1.-. 1-I-':'II-'.I.-I I'..I:-:LI.-I—I III1II! '5:.a.||_I_-.. :_-_ H' «J I3I' HI=‘|'IJ:II1. I-.- w: '--'I -.-I. 'n'E'I'Ei-Tll'll'“? h- Ihl' If": :|-|-_I .:_- I—Il-JI. 'Irl Il'hlllll. -C"I I1'_I,.' :I1-- iI1IiiHI-I HIIJ'H: rug-"fl. -| - "- I|'II_' I1'II3-Fl TI-IIII I'|.;Iingr*:-. I=I |:I1L- F_I.-n:-I-'JI_|I-|J.-:~. :-\:- rI-cI-Ir-L :-::|-.-:iI:J.-_ IIII_- DI'I|:IIII:-I.Ilrln rh‘l' rln_- 2|J'_i.|lll.l_1 -.:| I.I.r—'-:| Marl-I. |:I--= 1IE'L Linn-II I13.- FJ |:-.-| 'I"II :III :I'- ".'i'-:I : h. T'I'fi-I-‘i-I'II'H' :Ill' I'll I'1-I .I'I.:I L" “'Ilrrilld SIEZIIIEHIIHTE _:1! J-I'FI'HJII-II F"-=II'— 1A: -: .‘II‘H. -=l':I .JI.I.-rJ _la-ITI I.::I' |.I'II: FIIIIIII-u ' Ila-P": :-I.r|- wn-I'I'i I in. EII'ILI U.'Ll.I-I'_"2'§l :I I'L‘I-L:LI:I.-.'IIIII_. I121- IJIL-ur'lls- Jug-I b.II'I'I.I'II.'I HI.-II.'~J r:|' i=:.1 n1-E'FIH-dl1 ."II'IIE- -rn Ir: I:I:..': wring-I :13?- I.'._E'I'_ III." of In.II.'II_-:-:|'II'-I.-:I.-I£ Hl'i. 3-. {II 'Zln-III- nthc-hrn. IIZIEIEflEI'flfl I'-.':u.I'-_-' I.I1:II I.I1I.' la-IHI I}: IIEI- III_I-l. "HIE-L: dull'l ILIILIIW if [.:-.|-:.-_- DHL‘L‘L'IU-llt'l-C i3 {"1 1hr“ Tia-I'- I'l-: Fl I".'I| -'| '=I I'-.'|ril'li"' “I u'l'rllw: II ran ELEIJRIII." n11 I-c-I' r:- III-CI“- IJ1i:-:." 5-: -:I IJI'. E'IJI Inca-I LJ I]I.I.- II'LLII "_I'_UI.--|..I L'L_II Lllzfil'l' II'n-LI-yil III I-. I - . "L. :_.."."i.‘$_ '1 1'" ' 9'95}??? a "'""_r_'|"-I=~'-'IJ"1IJ-' lilI-—' r1I-' I'Icnl HUI-ms: :m-I lag-:1 nur- ‘ u-r um I-'-u-n1-_-r-=-..~u1 "J .m- .'"'H I' I ' IE" h' “uh—Ii"! "' _ “(Uh-"5 II II'IFI'L'T'TI {Ir I""Jll"-'l."rlIl'I_|l. I1 1III III-F'I'I- uni-1:3- LI1.1-I.h-|:-rh-I1n:-|I1r r . |1rI:-c1|-I-n:l “w dunk" cm” ':""‘5"E'5- "r '2’": ""'""""”" (Will-"HF. lad- I-'I-'Fl=l|-|=-'l'i='i-llll. ur- urn-II: iI:-: .-=.i-. i-:.-: :u. . - a Tb-I'JE ' L: 11m".- LI' : I “:n:- f-.--.: d at: fnl'__r'..-=II'I:I*- nfi l. II'i'n-‘LIJ nun-d iann-ellzilunr 1hrth'w cur min-5- -_—-L.:. '.I1II-'\-u'l'.E-II'I-Il -.-.---nIIh-H1--~.I.:II li' ! ' '1" - L'J'": I'fih'ld III.- HIE“- 5I'.'.‘1!Ifi. I'__|uiI:'II:I_-.r fiLIIfiITlI-k'll'll'i. [IJLI [EEL allwulll'L" _____ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ Research News Restoring Damaged Lakes Nothing so fair, so pure. and at the same time so large as a Iake, perchance, lies on the surface of the earth. Sky water. ‘X'luneu I had abvinusly rues er wen .‘onylhlns like .\1eJie.ul Lake in \"J5lllll5 nbn Sulc as. n has Junta; the rally “370's. In buntnler. .‘hledi;al lake \& u: III-.ed wnh Iurbid u’uter mace dill“. green hv dense Snln'lhx an! algae. Floating mun!» been- 7 led in w‘indrnws on [he lee sham. spelled here and [here wilh the puzre- lylns corpses of fish ll I lit.“ eull‘nu-Ied [mm lack ul‘oxxgen .n be “ruler. [)cnu: sol-anus ul’ flying in secls hnvere: o~er the lake. and much : I' Ihe :II‘:£I smug pel- rienxal by .- nusious L‘Gl(’l- file-deal Lulu.- he» in slag: of eulmphxculinn lb:- pro}, :3, in «ht-ell Lulu-x “(cu-"Llule llull'lcllls. he corru- more pau-Jweliwe- fill uri"! flew-ins vegetation- and r~er . II)‘ become nun sh and dry larid. Eulntphiculian I: a wan.an aging. "(L-ec5x- hul il is accelefi alcd ulna“; h» Increased loath 0:" nutri- cul> luun >tplic Iunlc dratnugc. 0‘ “all :‘r‘enr “L\lc lvcatn‘cnl plants. l'erli runoff fron- heids and lawns. an: mun - mher by-pnuduels ¢>l'ci'-i Excursion- hie-dial Lake "my be an extreme e).- mnr-lc. hut ll'nuvanda or other lakes and ponds “round the country show une en maze s» npturns of Lfitclclnlcll culmpl’h icutnon. These symptoms restri:t the use of “‘ulcr In municipal ovate: sys- lems. limit lecrealnonal ages 0' Lakes- dc- plete stocks uf spur! run. and generally degrade the enwitonmenl. Tc! ll i‘ only within the last lew years that there has been any conceded cm.” to reverse some of these efl'eels and to prevent l‘uluze desndurnn. .-\ snlaxl number 01 slang-a. punxcularly \\"isconsin. Blunucsuln. and \Vzmhinnlnn- have had lake restoralian p-ugrqms for seine Lime. but the Inajux illtpch‘ fur luusl recent gens-inc: ha: been lhe Clean Lakes I‘l’hgz'alu u‘ the Envirunn'mlnt'al Prxbteet‘on «genus I filial. That program “as firs: proposed in 15h!- cy Sen—nuts Walter hlnmluk- -:l1—h1uun.:- and QJeulin “uni-.1; (D*N.D.l. but was no: "1.83:2" until VI veg-“nu: pen. ol‘lhc Fedeml “'41:? Pcllu'..un Cuuuol Act 4\mcntlrrxnlx or I972- The Inn. requues xlulch lo sulvc} and urn-n21 on lbe quality or Iheiz Fresh— u'afe- lake: m: stun" lqsk in slates like SCIENCI’.. .... . e ». 3a" a; rd VCDZVV :n.‘ S l'L'BRZJAIlY IV“) mul'kln. wllkll has Irore than 7.000. and Blinnexulu. an hleh hax Ino- e ‘.li.ll llama—:- ul uLlliolirc> lurid: lu help rc— sluuc (In: wulc: qunlny 0! those that have beeorne cLInuph-c Since January "17$- when Inc “(51 grant was Ji>p¢u~emL EPA has awarded unite €32 lnilli I [in 76 Inkc trsxntu'. ion plujecus in 2-8 s ales. These gnznl\ at: fnr act-.11! project: I LsLe; lull-er than :‘ur re- ‘carcn. but clu- lmtflik’l‘utg and rent‘ling :=qn.rcmenls hull! iu-‘u the giants ptnm- “.9 In (nuke the prugxa-n ell'ecnve [LII' evullLounu lhe elh:a:\- ol' val'buus It’lt» :Auun lechniques. (MIN; half a dozen EP.-\-sponsurcd pray:ch have been con)- pleled vuu Iar. bul uh:- nrellmnnzug (cadu- look pmmisilly. AI. Li:di;al lake- for ex. ample the urn-tutu of ult‘le-‘irhhle algae has been shurr-ly tedueeu. v .IreI-u enn— ecnlxunnns have been IGJULCJ. the :aulonnl nl‘ daphnia and desirable phylo- plunhtun has. increased. and ‘walct qual:~ I): has n Inn’s-ed Surila‘ I'csuns have been rcmrled else“ helc- and u luv-a. eeejls “Jile pussiblc lhul. much of [he daunngc \Nnbue-hl by (iv-17:16.)" can be reversed—at Ienxl lempornnl)‘, ’l'hc r'uuudu III for mos: culrenr lake lestoulliuu pupae—ls was laid in lhe [930's and 1940's \uhcn it My“: demon- stmtcd I'lall algae and manv Ijlhel’ r'reslr mule: nuctnnrganiams reqUJe carbon. nitrogen. and [unusphorus in the ap- proximate ratio 0‘ 102! (u If to I. In rnost clean lakes. Isak of Qua: h as restrain the casual: of nxicrourxr (hul pro- nzole eulIupI'Ii-culiun. iluualr .l and d0- mcslic elfiucnla- hu-a .‘Vcl . ennlzun mgr-n- icant quanli'..€> ul‘ rluuphuxus. which Ulstupln lhe nanund halal-ye and pro— muIes excessive 3:9wa: ul algae :n-wl nth- er plan! life. ‘I he plant life i» n Human-cc 01 itself. and. unmet: u dies and >-nks. i2» detour-pn- siliun deplelcs oxygen in line hypolun- :IioI'Z—IIM: cnld ware: mglUIl of a lake than! has «unified inn. luscr: of aurora!“ lem~ :emlu|c>. 1_.J5-- : restaurwin tech ques thus reunite limiting Ihe influx of plus- phnru< and uthc: nulri=nla :0 :he lake. removing. the golden". than are already there. oxyncnmlng lhc l'ylsnlnn-non, or (‘03:. “I? if)?“ rot—01:55am “I” (Ray’s-ulna 1 luau AA 85 —— Henry David Thoreau mine conlbinaliun a! [be three. The us..- l‘ulness of variant 15¢"!th l‘ur ughiexing Hues-er goals was discussed a: an l-LPA- spun‘ole-d Nduovlnl L‘onlercnee on Lake Kean-radon held In kill-neapolis last August (‘orlrolling the influx u! nuxr-znzs us llzlllcuk and can be cxpenuve. but i'. i- also Ibe Inule crucial nlellnud or lake refi- lnlznlion. (llhcr mslomlinn 1e:hnuguc> can have ISIIIe pe lIdllL'll' nut-act unless the “our of nutrients is. :educcd. E-LIanrs r.- Ieduee nuzrienl influx havr <rlnwn urcul 5 -I;uin-15 'n senlc. I‘Cl’hfl‘i‘ ll‘e sleaze->1 3.1m}: efl‘nn :0- wuld lllllilufion ol’ nLtnent inllnw' hn£ Luau the reduction in Hue cuneenzru: on ol’ phcixflhfllt“ Ir. [nut-ll: y detergenl‘. Pfi- nr to the chucliuu WA ieved in 1973. de relgenls had been eszzmalcd In ennzxibr ule as much a...
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