lecture_23_2x2

lecture_23_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song The...

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Announcements and Such One Song — The Crusaders “That’s How I Feel” from Crusaders I Final Exam will be: Wednesday, May 16, 5–8pm @ 141 MCCONE Possible Questions to be posted on May 1 Today: Skepticism I Setting the stage for skepticism (in general)… Skepticism about induction (three arguments) Next Time: Skepticism II Throughout the course (so far), we have assumed that we have a fair amount of knowledge, e.g., knowledge about our immediate surroundings knowledge about ourselves (some) knowledge about the future scientific knowledge moral knowledge religious knowledge To be sure, some of these kinds of knowledge are more tenuous and controversial than others But, we all operate under the assumption that we have a fair amount of non-trivial knowledge The skeptic(s) offer general challenges to this claim Skepticism I The Knowledge (We Think) We Have The main strategy of the skeptic is to get us worried about strange possibilities — possibilities of pervasive error . There are various kinds: The possibility that I am hallucinating now The possibility that I am dreaming now The possibility that I am now a brain in a vat The possibility that there is an evil demon who is making things appear to me this way, but they are (in fact) nothing like the way they seem, … We can lump these possibilities together into: The possibility that I am now in A BAD CASE — a case in which pervasive error reigns This last chapter is all about such possibilities and what they imply (or don’t imply) about knowledge Skepticism I The Possibility of Pervasive Error I The main idea behind these bad cases is that — from the inside — they “look the same” as the good cases. In some sense, the two are indistinguishable . In this sense — as far as we can tell — we are now in the bad case! So, what follows? Does it follow that our beliefs are unjustified/not known? That, ultimately, will depend on one’s accounts of justification and knowledge (and also on the details of how we understand the bad/good cases). But, keep in mind that this skeptical possibility isn’t just a logical possibility — it’s a possibility that we are all (now) keenly aware of (a live one). This provides some reason to worry that many (if not all) of our mundane beliefs are unjustified and not known, and that we should suspend judgment . Skepticism I The Possibility of Pervasive Error II
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There are two basic ideals in epistemology: Believe propositions that are true Avoid believing propositions that are false Pursuing the first ideal can lead to credulity , since it calls upon us to believe (lots of) things. The second ideal can lead to
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course PHIL 122 taught by Professor Fitelson during the Spring '07 term at Berkeley.

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lecture_23_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song The...

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