lecture_3_2x2 - Announcements and Such Genesis"Watcher of...

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Announcements and Such Genesis : “Watcher of the Sky” from Foxtrot Sections meet this week in their permanent location Permanent section locations are posted on web You should have received an email re sections Talk to GSIs about section times/changes Final course roster will be set this week (everyone?) First Chunk of Audi is online < 122/audi_1.pdf > Today: Perception II (of III) First, brief review from last time (the “map”) Then, continuing on with the perception readings 1 Monday, January 22, 2007 Object o : a red cube Perceptual experience e (of the scene ) Perceiver S (Beethoven) S sees o by seeing its color & shape S sees o as red and as a cube S sees o to be a red cube S sees that o is a red cube S is prima facie justified in believing that o is a red cube S is justified in believing that o is a red cube S knows that o is a red cube ! " # Scene w/a red cube 2 Monday, January 22, 2007 Seeing, Justification & Knowledge I In a “good” case of perception (as in my “map”), S succeeds in seeing that p ( ) And, S ’s seeing that p implies two things: S believes that p, and p is true Moreover, normally , we will also have: S is justified in believing that p on the basis of their seeing that p ( ) Audi calls this the Visual Principle But, this isn’t necessarily the case: This justification is prima facie ( )   it can be defeated by other evidence 3 Monday, January 22, 2007 Seeing, Justification & Knowledge II Example: Charles sees that a bird is blue, but he also knows he’s been mistaking black birds for blue birds all morning Charles’s awareness of his bias in favor of seeing birds as blue can defeat his justification provided by his seeing that Moreover, if Charles doesn’t realize that he’s been unreliable, then his belief that p can be justified by his seeing that p Visual Experience Principle : When, on the basis of apparently normal visual experience, one believes something of the kind the experience seems to show, then this belief is justified ( again). 4 Monday, January 22, 2007
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Seeing, Justification & Knowledge III The Visual Principle (VP) connects vision ( seeing that or to be ) and justification The Visual Experience Principle (VEP) connects visual experience conceived as apparent seeing — and justification The VEP involves a an internal standard for justification, whereas VP is consistent with an external standard. What about perceptual knowledge ? That’s even harder to come by, but, still, in “normal” cases, knowledge does result from both “vision” & “visual experience” Our first glance at knowledge vs JTB… 5 Monday, January 22, 2007 Seeing, Justification & Knowledge IV Reconsider the second case in which Charles is unaware of his unreliability We wouldn’t fault Charles for believing that p
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