lecture_17_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song Dub...

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Announcements and Such One Song — Dub Resistance “Ridin” from World Receiver Second Essay Topics Posted Today (due 4/5 ): I also list the topics at the end of this lecture We can discuss these next time, if people want Please attend lecture Thursday (we’ve a visitor) Today: Part II of The Analysis of Knowledge Naturalist K: Causal, reliabilist, truth-tracking Prelude to Internalism vs Externalism Vanessa’s OH are 2:15–4 today, since she’s covering James’s sections on Thursday afternoon. So far, we’ve been supposing that justification is one of the components of knowledge. As we have seen, though, “JXTB” theories run into some serious challenges (Gettier-Zagzebski style). Perhaps we should take a different approach entirely, which doesn’t require justification at all. Audi describes such approaches as “naturalistic” — they think of knowledge as a matter of registering truth , much as thermometers register temperature On such approaches, we think of agents as “belief generating devices”, and we focus on their physical and causal properties. Justification plays no role . Audi discusses two such approaches: the causal theory , and reliabilism . I will also discuss truth- tracking accounts (a 3rd) in detail (Audi does not) The Analysis of Knowledge II Naturalistic Accounts of Knowledge On the causal theory, a true belief constitutes knowledge if it is caused in an appropriate way. The paradigm cases favorable to the causal view are simple (good) perceptual cases. The green field before me causes me to (truly) believe it is there. This is a direct causal relation between the object of my true belief and the true belief in question. The causal theory can also ground knowledge about the future, but that will involve a different sort of ( indirect , common-cause) causal structure. There can be common causes of (both) my belief and the future event in question. In such cases, the causal account can accommodate knowledge. What about a priori knowledge? Is that causal ? The Analysis of Knowledge II The Causal Theory of Knowledge The causal theory can run into trouble because it doesn’t require reliable belief-generating processes Example: Jim’s being angry causes ( via observation) Tom to believe (and know ) Jim is angry, and Tom’s testimony causes me to believe (truly) that Jim is angry. But, Tom is highly unreliable in his reports about Jim’s emotions. Reliabilism : knowledge is reliably grounded true belief. On this account, we are to focus on the reliability of the belief-generating process . The causal theory has no good way to block this as a case of knowledge for me. A reliabilist will deny that this (true belief) constitutes knowledge. Reliabilism can also explain why perception,
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course PHIL 122 taught by Professor Fitelson during the Spring '07 term at Berkeley.

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lecture_17_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song Dub...

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