lecture_8_2x2

lecture_8_2x2 - Two Songs - The Police (from Regatta De...

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Announcements and Such Two Songs — The Police (from Regatta De Blanc ) Regatta De Blanc Walking on the Moon No Lecture Next Tuesday (2/20) First Essays Due Next Tuesday (2/20) Turn-in your papers to your GSI’s mailbox in 301 Moses by 4pm Tuesday Policy on late papers : Each late day counts down a third of a letter grade (A+ ª A, A ª A–, etc .) Today: Reason (II of III) Empiricism vs Rationalism on “truths of reason” First, a brief review of concepts from last time Review from Last Time I Last time, we introduced some classical ways of thinking about “truths of reason”: Analytic truths: those that are true in virtue of containment relations between concepts, e.g. , that all vixens are female. Synthetic truths: non -analytic truths (Conceptually) Necessary truths: those that are true in all conceivable situations (true in virtue of some conceptual relation) Contingent truths: non -necessary truths A Priori truths: knowable by reason alone A posteriori truths: knowledge requires some experience (or empirical evidence) Review from Last Time II — Classical Picture Synthetic Truths A Priori Truths ( = Necessary Truths ) : Synthetic, a posteriori , contingent. "My car is red" : Synthetic, a priori : Analytic, a priori , necessary. "All vixens are female" Within the a priori truths ( + ), there are three sub -kinds: • Narrow ( self-evident truth) • Broad ( self-evident inference from a self-evident) • Ultimate (some finite chain of SEIs back to a self-evident) The Empiricist View of Truths of Reason I Overview The classical view asserts that the faculty of reason can ground a priori truths . This gives reason a very strong role — not merely a role of extending knowledge, via inference from things we know empirically Empiricists ( e.g. , Mill) reject this very powerful way of thinking about reason Empiricists will not deny that reason has some epistemological role — via inference Their gripe concerns the notion “ truth of reason ” — a truth which is itself grounded in reason (mainly a problem with a priority ) Both agree that much of our knowledge is grounded empirically & extended by reason
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The Empiricist View of Truths of Reason II Rationalism and Empiricism The classical view is rationalist about the truths of reason. Empiricists will at most accept (some) analytic truths as a priori . Some (moderate) empiricists (e.g. , “logical empiricists” — to be discussed below) allow logical truths to be counted as a priori . But, no empiricist (in our sense) will accept that there are synthetic a priori truths. Let’s here adopt a broader conception of
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lecture_8_2x2 - Two Songs - The Police (from Regatta De...

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