lecture_16_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song - Allman...

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Announcements and Such One Song — Allman Brothers Band “Jessica,” from Brothers and Sisters Second essay will be assigned on Tuesday (the essay will actually be due on 4/5, rather than 4/3). Today: Part I of four parts on the Analysis of Knowledge (finally, we ask “what is knowledge?”) Mainly, today we’ll cover the relationship between Justified True Belief and Knowledge. Note: I’m adding a fair amount of stuff (again) beyond the Audi reading today… We have been assuming various things about knowledge so far, including the following: S knows that p S believes that p S knows that p p is true I take it the first assumption is uncontroversial. The second assumption may be more so. We sometimes talk about “knowing” things that turn out to be false, but this is (for us) loose talk. This (loose) way of speaking may involve a conception of “knowing” as being certain . Knowledge is not being (subjectively) certain. In fact, a subjective attitude of certainty toward p is neither necessary nor sufficient for knowing p . The Analysis of Knowledge I Some Background Assumptions About Knowledge I [What is truth? We will discuss various theories of truth later in this chapter. For now, we’ll just presuppose a naive, realist conception of truth.] Of course, we’ve been (tacitly) assuming more about knowledge than just these two principles. That is, we’ve been assuming something like: Knowledge = true belief + X [or, X TB, for short] The question is: What is this “ X -factor” which, when super-added to true belief, yields knowledge? This is one of the most central (and oldest) questions in the history of philosophy. In this chapter, Audi considers various proposed answers to this question, about the “ X -factor”. The Analysis of Knowledge I Some Background Assumptions About Knowledge II One idea that was quite popular for over two millennia (from Plato’s time until the 1960’s) is: (JTB) S knows that p if and only if S believes p , p is true, and S is justified in believing p. In other words: knowledge is justified true belief. A version of the JTB theory is discussed and rejected in Plato’s Theaetetus (201). It is also discussed (more favorably) in Plato’s Meno (98). The Platonic version of JTB theory is actually somewhat different than modern JTB theory. Recall our distinction last time between S being justified in believing p vs S being able to articulate an “account” or an “explanation” for their belief. Plato really seems to be talking about the latter . The Analysis of Knowledge I Knowledge and Justified True Belief I
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Plato also tends not to distinguish propositional knowledge (in our sense) from other sorts of knowledge (knowing how , conceptual knowledge, knowledge of persons/objects, etc .), and this too causes difficulties. In
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2008 for the course PHIL 122 taught by Professor Fitelson during the Spring '07 term at Berkeley.

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lecture_16_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song - Allman...

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