lecture_7_2x2 - Two Songs First One By Request"In Elliott...

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Announcements and Such Two Songs — First One By Request Elliott Smith : “In the Lost and Found” and “Somebody that I used to Know” from Figure 8 Paper topics for first essay have been posted Essays are due in 2 weeks (2/20) Some Suggestions on the Readings: Lectures usually cover all important issues in Audi So, reading time might be better spent on articles Except when I don’t get to all (Memory, Consc., etc ) Today: Reason (I of III) Back to a less hectic pace for awhile… Self-Evident Truths of Reason I So far, we’ve been talking about beliefs that are grounded in experiences of various kinds: perception, memory, introspection. We also have beliefs that are not grounded in experience, but rather come from reason . If John is taller than Jim, then Jim is shorter than John. All vixens are female. Either it’s raining or it’s not raining. Nothing is both red all over and green all over simultaneously. Our beliefs in these sorts of propositions are the subject of the next three lectures. Self-Evident Truths of Reason II These sorts of propositions are often described as being self-evident — without need of supporting evidence of their truth We’ll use “ p is a self -evident truth ” as: 1. If one adequately understands p , then — by virtue of that understanding — one is justified in believing that p. 2. If one believes that p on the basis of adequately understanding p — then one thereby knows that p . “Adequately” is rather strong here. The justification in (1) may be defeasible . Self-evident truths need not be obvious . Self-Evident Truths of Reason III We need not form beliefs regarding self- evident truths — even when we adequately understand them in accordance with (1). Understanding propositions requires understanding the concepts they involve: Understanding a concept C Objectually believing C to apply to o Propositionally believing that C applies to o One need not consult one’s experience of o (or even ponder the proposition that Co ) in order to understand a self-evident p ( Co ) . Normally, when one comes to understand such a p ( Co ), one believes and knows it
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Self-Evident Truths of Reason IV The crucial thing about self-evident beliefs is that they are epistemically immediate not based on inference or further evidence Traditionally, self-evident truths have been thought to have other important properties: truths of reason : truths knowable by reason alone w/out sense experience necessary truths : there are no conceivable circumstances in which they are false Note: If a proposition is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false, it is contingent . Next, we’ll think more about
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lecture_7_2x2 - Two Songs First One By Request"In Elliott...

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