lecture_19_2x2 - Announcements and Such One Song Peter...

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Announcements and Such One Song — Peter Kruder “Domination” from Peace Orchestra No lecture Thursday (APA meeting conflict) Back on schedule Tuesday — see revised syllabus Also, recommended readings for next § added No office hours for Branden Thursday either But, Branden will hold O.H. Friday , 3–5pm Second Essay Topics due 4/10 (!) @ 4pm Today: The Analysis of Knowledge IV (final episode) Internalism vs Externalism & Theories of Truth Postscript: Virtue Epistemology Something is accessible to S if it is either present in S ’s consciousness, or S is able to bring it into their consciousness via reflection and/or introspection We will say that something is (in part) internal to S if it has elements that are accessible to S . Historically, justification is internal in this sense — it has accessible or “by your own lights” elements. Because knowledge implies truth, it is to be expected that knowledge has some external component(s) — which may not be accessible. Example: my only accessible evidence concerning Tom’s reliability indicates Tom is reliable re p . So, I am justified in believing (internal) p on the basis of Tom’s testimony. But, unless Tom really is reliable (external), I don’t know p on this basis. The Analysis of Knowledge III Internalism vs Externalism I The “naturalistic” ( e.g. , truth-tracking/reliabilist) accounts of knowledge tend to be externalist ( i.e. , they emphasize external requirements on K). But, the JXTB theories tend to be internalist ( i.e. , they emphasize internal requirements on K). Extreme internalism about knowledge seems very implausible (given realism about truth – see below) Extreme externalism about knowledge has been more widely accepted in contemporary philosophy Sometimes extreme externalists talk about “justification”, but (for them), this is external I will focus mainly on internalism about justification , and externalism about knowledge . There are various varieties of internalism/ externalism, differing along various dimensions. The Analysis of Knowledge III Internalism vs Externalism II The internalist about justification holds only that the grounds for one’s justified beliefs are internal. They do not require that how (or how strongly ) those grounds justify beliefs based on them must also be internal (accessible to introspection) The “support” relation needn’t itself be internal. I’ll return to this, below, since it can seem odd.
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