lecture_6_2x2 - Announcements and Such Two Songs By Request...

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Announcements and Such Two Songs — By Request The Smiths : “Ask” from Louder than Bombs Elvis Costello: “Man Out of Time” from Imperial Bedroom Paper topics for first essay have been posted Essays are due in 2 weeks (2/20) Some Suggestions on the Readings: Lectures usually cover all important issues in Audi So, reading time might be better spent on articles Except when I don’t get to all (Memory, Consc., etc ) Today: Consciousness (I of I) First-Order vs Second-Order Beliefs So far, we’ve been talking about first-order beliefs about objects, events, and the like We also have second-order beliefs — beliefs about our own mental phenomena/life I believe that I am thinking I believe that I have beliefs , desires I believe that I am seeing people now How do we come to have such beliefs? One way (the way we’re interested in here) is by introspection or self-consciousness We can also come to such beliefs in other ways, but that’s not our main interest today Kinds of Mental Properties I Some mental properties — like thinking — are processes . These unfold over time (as in a sequence of thoughts, images, etc .) Some mental properties are static . At any given time, I will be in a mental state . Mental imaging can thought of in both process and state terms. The “calling up” of a mental image is a process. But, once the image is before my mind, I can remain in a rather static mental state. Belief can also be thought of as a mental state. It differs from an image, since it need not be visual or in present consciousness Here, the disposition concept is important Kinds of Mental Properties II Beliefs can involve mental images and they can be occurrent in one’s consciousness But, they need not do either. First, even occurrent beliefs need not involve images Second, beliefs have a more dispositional nature than images. They need not be occurrent in one’s consciousness at all. Having a belief is more than simply a “consciously felt conviction”. Having a belief also involves being disposed to act in certain ways. For instance, say I believe Hilary Clinton should be president. Presumably, then, I would act in a certain way (e.g., like voting for her in the election).
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Kinds of Mental Properties III We have two kinds of mental properties: Occurrent (in conscious awareness) E xperiential process properties Thinking, calling-up images, etc. Experiential state properties Having a fixed, static image in mind Dispositional (not in conscious awareness) (non-occurrently) Believing that p (non-occurrently) Remembering that p [Note: dispositional mental properties don’t require consciousness at all…] Introspection & Inner Vision I “Introspection” sounds like it describes a process of inner seeing or looking inward The (naive) idea is that we can consciously attend to mental images (whether they be perceptual , memorial , or imaginative )
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