Melero Chap 29 Notes Jan 2016 - Melero 1 Eleanor Melero Mrs...

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Melero 1Eleanor MeleroMrs. HydeHon US History1/23/16Chap 29 Civil Rights, Vietnam, and the Ordeal of LiberalismExpanding the Liberal StateJohn KennedyElection of 1960 candidates, Republican: Richard Nixon, Democrat: John Kennedy.JFK won the election by a very small margin (49.7% to Nixons 49.6%), but he stood victorious due to his charismatic attitude and his ability to add personality to his campaign.Kennedy strived for a new set of domestic reforms that he called the "New Frontier" which never really saw the light of day because of a republican dominated congress.Unfortunely, on November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assasinated, by alleged killer Lee Harvey Oswald, during a public appereance in Texas.Lyndon Johnson took over presidency.Lyndon JohnsonJohnson had a very crude personality, and was considered almost completely opposite from Kennedy.One similarity Johnson and Kennedy did share, was the strive for reformJohnson created his idea of The "Great Society" similar to Kennedy's "New Frontier"Johnson wins presidency in the election of 1964, so he can further his idea.The Assault on PovertyMedicare was a program, enacted in 1965, that gave financial aid to the elderly for medical expences.Medicaid was a program, enacted in 1966, that extended medicare to welfare recipients and other people of all agesWanted to fix poverty: “war on poverty”=Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO):created array of new educational, employment, housing, health-care programs----OEO=controversial cuz of its commitment to idea of “Community Action”: effort toinvolve members of poor communities themselves in the planning and administration ofthe programs designed to help them---CA programs provided jobs for many poor peopleand gave them valuable experience in administrative and political work.CA approach proved impossible to sustain cuz of administrative failures and cuz theapparent excesses of a few agencies damaged the popular image of the CA programs andwar on poverty as a wholeOEO helped reduce poverty in some areas but it did NOT eliminate poverty cuz of theweaknesses of the programs themselves and cuz funding for them (inadequate frombeginning) dwindled as years passed and war in SE Asia became nation’s 1stpriorityCities Schools, ImmigrationFederal efforts to promote revitalization of decaying cities and to strengthen the nation’s schoolsbegan
Melero 2The Housing Act of 1961: offered 4.9 billion in federal grants to cities for the preservation ofopen spaces, the development of mass-transit systems, and subsidization of middle-incomehousing1966: Johnson established a new cabinet agency: Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment----and also inaugurated the Model Cities program: offered federal subsidies forurban redevelopment pilot programsElementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965: bills extended aid to both private andparochial schools and based the aid on the economic conditions of the students, not on needs of

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