Chapter 3 Outline u2013 Classical Civilization - Chapter 3...

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Chapter 3 Outline – Classical Civilization: IndiaClassical Civilization: IndiaCHAPTER OUTLINE SUMMARYIntroductionAjanta and ElloraCave templesConstructed in stages last centuries B.C.E. through the 8thcentury C.E.Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism coexistingRamayana,Nature of society, everyday life, and popular cultureVisualize more than a millennium of historyBrahman-dominated society which emerged in the kingdoms of Aryan migrantsRise of Buddhism in the 6th century B.C.ERise and political fragmentation of Maurya dynastyCompetition among different schools of Buddhism, Brahmanism, and other sectsBreakthroughs of Gupta empire 4th to the mid-6th centuries C.EIndia a core civilizations of the preindustrial worldChapter FocusCollapse of Harappa around 1500 B.C.E.Aryans, new foundation between 1500 and 500 B.C.E.Kingdoms of the Gangetic PlainsKings claim divine descentCultivation and cleared forests affected climate changeComplex ritual divisions, restrictions, social hierarchy, Vedic priests dominant force6thcentury B.C.E. many dissenters, Buddhist challengeI. The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative PeriodBuddhist, Brahmin rivalry shaped social hierarchies and gender rolesMauryan Empire, India’s first empire, shaped by Buddhist teachingInvasion, political fragmentation until Gupta empire in 4thc. C.E.Gupta reasserted Brahmin control, HinduismPeriod of scientific, artistic, literary, philosophical, and architectural achievementContrast with ChinaIndian focus on religion, social structure, Hindu way of lifePolitical structure less cohesive, less importantUnique cultural developments: religion, science, economics, family lifeSimilarities with ChinaAgricultural imperative: survival, village life, local allegiance, patriarchyGreat cities, extensive trade, social and economic complexityFormal intellectual life, schools and academiesA. Formative InfluencesGeographyCloser to other civilizations than ChinaInfluences from Middle East, Mediterranean, PersiaTopographyHimalayan barrier to East Asia
Passes in northwest link to Middle EastDivisions in subcontinent:Two river regions: Indus and Ganges (agriculture)Mountainous north (herding)Mid-continent mountains and Deccan plateauSouthern coastal rim (trading, seafaring)Considerable economic, racial, linguistic diversityClimateMost of India, especially river plains semitropicalMonsoon rains variableSometimes flooding, drought, starvationGood years supported two harvests and large populationB. The Great EpicsFormative period between IndusRiverValley civilization and revival of full civilizationCalled Vedic and Epic AgesVedic Age between 1500 and 1000 B.C.E.Nomadic Aryans increasingly turn to agricultureExtend to GangesRiver valleyLiterary epics, sacred texts called Vedas form the historical recordBegan orally, then written in Sanskrit“Veda” means “knowledge” in SanskritFirst epic, Riga-Veda, 1028 hymns dedicated to Aryan godsEpic Age between 1000 and 600 B.C.E.

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