trans - Transactions Serializability Isolation Levels...

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Unformatted text preview: Transactions Serializability Isolation Levels Atomicity 1 The Setting x Database systems are normally being accessed by many users or processes at the same time. x Unlike Operating Systems, which support interaction of processes, a DMBS needs to keep processes from troublesome interactions. 2 Both queries and modifications. Example: Bad Interaction x You and your spouse each take $100 from different ATM's at about the same time. x Compare: An OS allows two people to edit a document at the same time. If both write, one's changes get lost. The DBMS better make sure one account deduction doesn't get lost. 3 ACID Transactions x A DBMS is expected to support "ACID transactions," which are: Atomic : Either the whole process is done or none is. Consistent : Database constraints are preserved. Isolated : It appears to the user as if only one process executes at a time. Durable : Effects of a process do not get lost if the system crashes. 4 Transactions in SQL x SQL supports transactions, often behind the scenes. Each statement issued at the generic query interface is a transaction by itself. In programming interfaces like Embedded SQL or PSM, a transaction begins the first time an SQL statement is executed and ends with the program or an explicit end. 5 COMMIT x The SQL statement COMMIT causes a transaction to complete. It's database modifications are now permanent in the database. 6 ROLLBACK x The SQL statement ROLLBACK also causes the transaction to end, but by aborting. x Failures like division by 0 can also cause rollback, even if the programmer does not request it. 7 No effects on the database. An Example: Interacting Processes x Assume the usual Sells(bar,beer,price) relation, and suppose that Joe's Bar sells only Bud for $2.50 and Miller for $3.00. x Sally is querying Sells for the highest and lowest price Joe charges. x Joe decides to stop selling Bud and Miller, but to sell only Heineken at $3.50. 8 Sally's Program x Sally executes the following two SQL statements, which we call (min) and (max), to help remember what they do. (max) SELECT MAX(price) FROM Sells WHERE bar = `Joe''s Bar'; (min) SELECT MIN(price) FROM Sells WHERE bar = `Joe''s Bar'; 9 Joe's Program x At about the same time, Joe executes the following steps, which have the mnemonic names (del) and (ins). (del) DELETE FROM Sells WHERE bar = `Joe''s Bar'; (ins) INSERT INTO Sells VALUES(`Joe''s Bar', `Heineken', 3.50); 10 Interleaving of Statements x Although (max) must come before (min) and (del) must come before (ins), there are no other constraints on the order of these statements, unless we group Sally's and/or Joe's statements into transactions. 11 Example: Strange Interleaving x Suppose the steps execute in the order (max)(del)(ins)(min). 3.50 Joe's Prices: 2.50, 3.00 2.50, 3.00 (max) (del) (ins) (min) Statement: 3.00 3.50 Result: x Sally sees MAX < MIN! 12 Fixing the Problem With Transactions x If we group Sally's statements (max) (min) into one transaction, then she cannot see this inconsistency. x She see's Joe's prices at some fixed time. Either before or after he changes prices, or in the middle, but the MAX and MIN are computed from the same prices. 13 Another Problem: Rollback x Suppose Joe executes (del)(ins), but after executing these statements, thinks better of it and issues a ROLLBACK statement. x If Sally executes her transaction after (ins) but before the rollback, she sees a value, 3.50, that never existed in the database. 14 Solution x If Joe executes (del)(ins) as a transaction, its effect cannot be seen by others until the transaction executes COMMIT. If the transaction executes ROLLBACK instead, then its effects can never be seen. 15 Isolation Levels x SQL defines four isolation levels = choices about what interactions are allowed by transactions that execute at about the same time. x How a DBMS implements these isolation levels is highly complex, and a typical DBMS provides its own options. 16 Choosing the Isolation Level x Within a transaction, we can say: SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL X where X = 1. 2. 3. 4. SERIALIZABLE REPEATABLE READ READ COMMITTED READ UNCOMMITTED 17 Serializable Transactions x If Sally = (max)(min) and Joe = (del)(ins) are each transactions, and Sally runs with isolation level SERIALIZABLE, then she will see the database either before or after Joe runs, but not in the middle. x It's up to the DBMS vendor to figure out how to do that, e.g.: True isolation in time. Keep Joe's old prices around to answer Sally's queries. 18 Isolation Level Is Personal Choice x Your choice, e.g., run serializable, affects only how you see the database, not how others see it. x Example: If Joe Runs serializable, but Sally doesn't, then Sally might see no prices for Joe's Bar. i.e., it looks to Sally as if she ran in the middle of Joe's transaction. 19 ReadCommited Transactions x If Sally runs with isolation level READ COMMITTED, then she can see only committed data, but not necessarily the same data each time. x Example: Under READ COMMITTED, the interleaving (max)(del)(ins)(min) is allowed, as long as Joe commits. Sally sees MAX < MIN. 20 RepeatableRead Transactions x Requirement is like readcommitted, plus: if data is read again, then everything seen the first time will be seen the second time. But the second and subsequent reads may see more tuples as well. 21 Example: Repeatable Read x Suppose Sally runs under REPEATABLE READ, and the order of execution is (max)(del)(ins)(min). (max) sees prices 2.50 and 3.00. (min) can see 3.50, but must also see 2.50 and 3.00, because they were seen on the earlier read by (max). 22 Read Uncommitted x A transaction running under READ UNCOMMITTED can see data in the database, even if it was written by a transaction that has not committed (and may never). x Example: If Sally runs under READ UNCOMMITTED, she could see a price 3.50 even if Joe later aborts. 23 ...
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trans - Transactions Serializability Isolation Levels...

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