er - EntityRelationship Model Diagrams Class hierarchies...

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Unformatted text preview: EntityRelationship Model Diagrams Class hierarchies Weak entity sets 1 Purpose of E/R Model x The E/R model allows us to sketch the design of a database informally. x Designs are pictures called entity relationship diagrams. x Fairly mechanical ways to convert E/R diagrams to real implementations like relational databases exist. 2 Entity Sets x Entity = "thing" or object. x Entity set = collection of similar entities. x Attribute = property of an entity set. Similar to a class in objectoriented languages. Generally, all entities in a set have the same properties. Attributes are simple values, e.g. integers or character strings. 3 E/R Diagrams x In an entityrelationship diagram, each entity set is represented by a rectangle. x Each attribute of an entity set is represented by an oval, with a line to the rectangle representing its entity set. 4 Example name manf Beers x Entity set Beers has two attributes, name and manf (manufacturer). x Each Beer entity has values for these two attributes, e.g. (Bud, AnheuserBusch) 5 Relationships x A relationship connects two or more entity sets. x It is represented by a diamond, with lines to each of the entity sets involved. 6 Example name Bars license Note: license = beer, full, none addr Sells name manf Bars sell some beers. Drinkers like some beers. Drinkers frequent some bars. Beers Frequents Likes name Drinkers addr 7 Relationship Set x The current "value" of an entity set is the set of entities that belong to it. x The "value" of a relationship is a set of lists of currently related entities, one from each of the related entity sets. 8 Example: the set of all bars in our database. Example x For the relationship Sells, we might have a relationship set like: Bar Joe's Bar Joe's Bar Sue's Bar Sue's Bar Sue's Bar Beer Bud Miller Bud Pete's Ale Bud Lite 9 Multiway Relationships x Sometimes, we need a relationship that connects more than two entity sets. x Suppose that drinkers will only drink certain beers at certain bars. Our three binary relationships Likes, Sells, and Frequents do not allow us to make this distinction. But a 3way relationship would. 10 Example name license Bars Preferences addr name Beers manf Drinkers name addr 11 A Typical Relationship Set Bar Joe's Bar Sue's Bar Sue's Bar Joe's Bar Joe's Bar Joe's Bar Sue's Bar Drinker Ann Ann Ann Bob Bob Cal Cal Beer Miller Bud Pete's Ale Bud Miller Miller Bud Lite 12 ManyMany Relationships x Think of a relationship between two entity sets, such as Sells between Bars and Beers. x In a manymany relationship, an entity of either set can be connected to many entities of the other set. E.g., a bar sells many beers; a beer is sold by many bars. 13 ManyOne Relationships x Some binary relationships are many one from one entity set to another. x Each entity of the first set is connected to at most one entity of the second set. x But an entity of the second set can be connected to zero, one, or many entities of the first set. 14 Example x Favorite, from Drinkers to Beers is manyone. x A drinker has at most one favorite beer. x But a beer can be the favorite of any number of drinkers, including zero. 15 OneOne Relationships x In a oneone relationship, each entity of either entity set is related to at most one entity of the other set. x Example: Relationship Bestseller between entity sets Manfs (manufacturer) and Beers. A beer cannot be made by more than one manufacturer, and no manufacturer can have more than one bestseller (assume no ties). 16 In Pictures: many-many many-one one-one 17 Representing "Multiplicity" x Show a manyone relationship by an arrow entering the "one" side. x Show a oneone relationship by arrows entering both entity sets. x In some situations, we can also assert "exactly one," i.e., each entity of one set must be related to exactly one entity of the other set. To do so, we use a rounded arrow. 18 Example Drinkers Likes Beers Favorite 19 Example x Consider Bestseller between Manfs and Beers. x Some beers are not the bestseller of any manufacturer, so a rounded arrow to Manfs would be inappropriate. x But a manufacturer has to have a best seller (we assume they are beer manufacturers). 20 In the E/R Diagram Bestseller Manfs Beers 21 Attributes on Relationships x Sometimes it is useful to attach an attribute to a relationship. x Think of this attribute as a property of tuples in the relationship set. 22 Example Bars Sells Beers price Price is a function of both the bar and the beer, not of one alone. 23 Equivalent Diagrams Without Attributes on Relationships x Create an entity set representing values of the attribute. x Make that entity set participate in the relationship. 24 Example Bars Sells Beers Note convention: arrow from multiway relationship = "all other entity sets determine a unique one of these." 25 Prices price Roles x Sometimes an entity set appears more than once in a relationship. x Label the edges between the relationship and the entity set with names called roles. 26 Example Relationship Set Husband Bob Joe ... wife Drinkers Wife Ann Sue ... Married husband 27 Example Relationship Set Buddy1 Bob Joe Ann Joe ... Buddy2 Ann Sue Bob Moe ... Buddies 1 Drinkers 2 28 Subclasses x Subclass = special case = fewer entities = more properties. x Example: Ales are a kind of beer. Not every beer is an ale, but some are. Let us suppose that in addition to all the properties (attributes and relationships) of beers, ales also have the attribute color. 29 Subclasses in E/R Diagrams x Assume subclasses form a tree. x Isa triangles indicate the subclass relationship. Point to the superclass. I.e., no multiple inheritance. 30 Example name Beers manf isa color Ales 31 E/R Vs. ObjectOriented Subclasses x In the objectoriented world, objects are in one class only. x In contrast, E/R entities have components in all subclasses to which they belong. Matters when we convert to relations. Subclasses inherit properties from superclasses. 32 Example name Beers manf Pete's Ale isa color Ales 33 Keys x A key is a set of attributes for one entity set such that no two entities in this set agree on all the attributes of the key. x We must designate a key for every entity set. It is allowed for two entities to agree on some, but not all, of the key attributes. 34 Keys in E/R Diagrams x Underline the key attribute(s). x In an Isa hierarchy, only the root entity set has a key, and it must serve as the key for all entities in the hierarchy. 35 Example: name is Key for Beers name Beers manf isa color Ales 36 Example: a Multiattribute Key dept number hours room Courses Note that hours and room could also serve as a key, but we must select only one key. 37 Weak Entity Sets x Occasionally, entities of an entity set need "help" to identify them uniquely. x Entity set E is said to be weak if in order to identify entities of E uniquely, we need to follow one or more many one relationships from E and include the key of the related entities from the connected entity sets. 38 Example x name is almost a key for football players, but there might be two with the same name. x number is certainly not a key, since players on two teams could have the same number. x But number, together with the Team related to the player by Playson should be unique. 39 In E/R Diagrams name number Players Playson name Teams Double diamond for supporting manyone relationship. Double rectangle for the weak entity set. 40 Weak EntitySet Rules x A weak entity set has one or more manyone relationships to other (supporting) entity sets. x The key for a weak entity set is its own underlined attributes and the keys for the supporting entity sets. Not every manyone relationship from a weak entity set need be supporting. E.g., playernumber and teamname is a key for Players in the previous example. 41 Design Techniques 1. Avoid redundancy. 2. Limit the use of weak entity sets. 3. Don't use an entity set when an attribute will do. 42 Avoiding Redundancy x Redundancy occurs when we say the same thing in two different ways. x Redundancy wastes space and (more importantly) encourages inconsistency. The two instances of the same fact may become inconsistent if we change one and forget to change the other, related version. 43 Example: Good name Beers name Manfs addr ManfBy This design gives the address of each manufacturer exactly once. 44 Example: Bad name Beers name Manfs addr ManfBy manf This design states the manufacturer of a beer twice: as an attribute and as a related entity. 45 Example: Bad name manf Beers manfAddr This design repeats the manufacturer's address once for each beer; loses the address if there are temporarily no beers for a manufacturer. 46 Entity Sets Versus Attributes x An entity set should satisfy at least one of the following conditions: It is more than the name of something; it has at least one nonkey attribute. It is the "many" in a manyone or many many relationship. 47 or Example: Good name Beers name Manfs addr ManfBy Manfs deserves to be an entity set because of the nonkey attribute addr. Beers deserves to be an entity set because it is the "many" of the manyone relationship ManfBy. 48 Example: Good name Beers manf There is no need to make the manufacturer an entity set, because we record nothing about manufacturers besides their name. 49 Example: Bad name Beers name Manfs ManfBy Since the manufacturer is nothing but a name, and is not at the "many" end of any relationship, it should not be an entity set. 50 Don't Overuse Weak Entity Sets x Beginning database designers often doubt that anything could be a key by itself. x In reality, we usually create unique ID's for entity sets. Examples include socialsecurity numbers, automobile VIN's etc. They make all entity sets weak, supported by all other entity sets to which they are linked. 51 When Do We Need Weak Entity Sets? x The usual reason is that there is no global authority capable of creating unique ID's. x Example: it is unlikely that there could be an agreement to assign unique player numbers across all football teams in the world. 52 ...
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