ESS 101 – Midterm Review

ESS 101 – Midterm Review - ESS 101 Midterm Review A...

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ESS 101 – Midterm Review A. Introduction: Earth’s Internal Structure Core – Ni (nickel), Fe (iron) o Inner – solid, stays solid due to high pressure even though its at a high temperature o Outer - liquid Mantle – Fe (iron), Mg (magnesium), Si (silicon), O (oxygen) o Solid with plumes of molten rock Asthenosphere – “plastic” layer, region in the upper mantle of the earth's interior, characterized by low-density, semi-plastic (or partially molten) rock material Lithosphere - composed of rocks in the crust and upper mantle that behave as brittle solids Crust – Si (silicon), O (oxygen), Al (aluminum) o Thick, solid o Pressure increases, temperature decreases from inner to crust Earth w/ solar system 4.6 Billion years old, formed by a nebula cloud B. Plate Tectonics process of moving plates, interaction caused earthquakes Historical Development and Scientific Evidence o Hypothesis and Theories Scientists raise question, find available data, form hypothesis, collect data to test hypothesis, theory o Alfred Wagener – Continental Drift – HYPOTHESIS . Observations similarity in coastlines Test Fossils, Mountain Structure, Glaciation ALL FAILED because he couldn’t figure out the mechanisms of how the continents drifted a part. o Harry Hess – Sea Floor Spreading Observations magnetic rocks, mid ocean ridges Test trenches, earthquake distribution (interacted with broken parts of the lithosphere), volcano distribution, magnetic reversals, volcanic rock at the bottom of the ocean Became a THEORY of Plate Tectonics because of GPS Measurements, Earthquake and volcano distribution Plate Boundaries o Convergent – move towards each other, associated w/ subduction zone, collision o Divergent – move away from each other o Transform Faults – no igneous activity happening, lithosphere still moves and shakes, a lot of earthquakes happen along them, plates slide along each other E .g. San Andres Fault
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C. Igneous Rocks Origin of magma o Hot molten material that forms inside the earth Composed of 8 mobile ions of 8 most abundant elements of the earth’s crust and dissolved gases such as water vapor, CO2, SO2 Cools and crystalizes into silicate minerals Mineral crystallization o Silicates – built oceanic/continental lithosphere Silicate minerals are built around the silica tetrahedron functional group (Si O4 -4) Types of Silicate Minerals: Silicates, Silica Tetrahedron, Chains, Sheets and Framework, Ferromagnesian (gives color) Silicate Structures: single and double chains, sheets structure (can peel and is in one direction) o Oxides – oxygen reacts to metals (E.g. – Hematite) o Halides - ** table salt o Sulfides – form as sulfur and metal (E.g. – pyrite) o Sulfates – sulfur composite, sulfur/oxygen and mixed with something else o Native Elements – elements on their own E.g. diamonds, gold and silver, where it is the mineral no reacting with something else Mafic – SiO2, 44-55 wt% , HIGH Fe, Mg, Ca and LOW
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  • Fall '10
  • MARTINHELMKE
  • Geology, Volcano, Basalt, Silicate minerals, ESS101, MIDTERMREVIEW, NIKITIN

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