Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Physical Growth Maturation and Aging...

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Chapter 3: Physical Growth, Maturation, and Aging Prenatal Development Both genetic and extrinsic factors influence normal and abnormal embryonic and fetal growth. Embryonic Development: conception to 8 weeks, number of cells increase and cells differentiate. Human form takes shape. Fetal Growth: 8 weeks to birth, functional capacity. Growth through hyperplasia (increase in the absolute number of cells), and hypertrophy (increase in the relative size in an individual cell). Growth in two directions: cephalocaudal (head and toward the lower body), and proximodistal (from the body toward the extremities). Some cells have plasticity, and can assume the function of damaged cells nearby. Fetal Nourishment: the bloodstream of the fetus and mother never mingle Abnormal Prenatal Development: congenital defects – anomalies present at birth, regardless whether they are genetic or extrinsic caused. Teratogen – drug/chemical agent that causes abnormal development in a fetus upon exposure. Postnatal Development
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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Physical Growth Maturation and Aging...

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