Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Development of Human Locomotion...

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Chapter 6: Development of Human Locomotion Locomotion is the act of moving from place to place Locomotion is shaped by the interaction of individual, task, and environmental constraints o Individual structural constraints: height, weight o Individual functional constraints: motivation, perceived gender association of a skill (“skipping is for girls”), fear of falling o Environmental constraints: weather changes (e.g. snow and ice) The First Voluntary Locomotor Efforts: Creeping and Crawling Motor milestones must be achieved – e.g. lifting head in prone position Environment constraints must also satisfy several conditions: flat, friction, sturdy. .. Once certain rate limiters disappear, creeping and crawling occur when all four limbs are in contact with the supporting surface. In crawling, the infant’s chest and stomach also touch the surface. In creeping, only the hands and knees touch the surface. o Progression: crawling -> low creeping with legs moving simultaneously -> rocking back and forth in high creep -> creeping with alternate limb move. Sometimes infants walk on hands and feet due to environmental constraints Walking Across the Life Span Walking is defined by a 50% phasing relationship between the legs, as well as a period of double support (when both feet are on the ground), followed by single support. The pattern remains the same throughout the lifespan, however, the absolute timing and placement change. Gait: a pattern of locomotion where humans move using upright bipedal locomotion e.g. walking, running, galloping, skipping, hopping. First Steps: Characteristics of Early Walking o Flat feet, feet wide apart, short steps independent of the next, no trunk rotation, arms up in high guards, no arm swings => improves balance Rate Controllers in Early Walking o Rate controllers in early walking are muscular strength and balance o Infant must have enough strength and balance to support on single limb Proficient Walking Patterns o Proficient walker controls biomechanical principles o Infant sacrifices stability at the expense of better mobility
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Stride length increases, heel-then-forefoot walk, keeps toes in forward direction, double knee-lock pattern (knee extends twice in one step cycle), pelvis rotates, balance improve, oppositional arm swing Developmental Changes in Walking During Early Childhood o Velocity of walk, stride length, length of single limb support, rhythm and coordination increase Developmental Changes in Walking During Older Adulthood o Between childhood and older adulthood, changes occur on an individual basis – cannot generalize due to variability and different extrinsic factors
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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Development of Human Locomotion...

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