03.1.2-Physics-AlecCooper - 4 Cell Phones and Cancer Risk National Cancer Institute Cell Phones and Cancer Risk Task#2 Paragraphs 4 and 5 Paragraph#4

03.1.2-Physics-AlecCooper - 4 Cell Phones and Cancer Risk...

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8/15/201 4 Cell Phones and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute n t 1/10 Cell Phones and Cancer Risk- Task #2, Paragraphs 4 and 5 Paragraph #4: What has research shown about the possible cancer- causing effects of radiofrequency energy? Although there have been some concerns that radiofrequency energy from cell phones held closely to the head may affect the brain and other tissues, to date there is no evidence from studies of cells, animals, or humans that radiofrequency energy can cause cancer. It is generally accepted that damage to DNA is necessary for cancer to develop. However, radiofrequency energy, unlike ionizing radiation, does not cause DNA damage in cells, and it has not been found to cause cancer in animals or to enhance the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinog e ns in animals (3 5 ). Researchers have carried out several types of epidemiologic studies to investigate the possibility of a relationship between cell phone use and the risk of malignant (cancerous) brain tumors, such as gliomas , as well as benign (noncancerous) tumors, such as acoustic neuromas (tumors in the cells of the nerve responsible for hearing), most meningiomas (tumors in the meninges, membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord), and parotid gland tumors (tumors in the salivary glands) (6 ). In one type of study, called a case-control study , cell phone use is compared between people with these types of tumors and people without them. In another type of study, called a cohort study , a large group of people is followed over time and the rate of these tumors in people who did and didn’t use cell phones is compared. Cancer incidence data can also be analyzed over time to see if the rates of cancer changed in large populations during the time that cell phone use increased dramatically. The results of these studies have generally not provided clear evidence of a relationship between cell phone use and cancer, but there have been some statistically significant findings in certain subgroups of people. Findings from specific research studies are summarized below: The Interphone Study, conducted by a consortium of researchers from 13 countries, is the largest health-related case-control study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors. Most published analyses from this study
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8/15/201 4 Cell Phones and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute h tt p :// www . cancer . gov / cancer t opics /f ac t shee t/ Risk / cellphones / pri n t 1/10
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