History 020 Notes

History 020 Notes - History 020 Notes 2/4/08 Colonial...

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Unformatted text preview: History 020 Notes 2/4/08 Colonial Settlements; Jamestown and Virginia Norton 9-32 European Societies o 15 th century Europeans were agricultural people, split into numerous small, warring countries o Men did fieldwork, women helped out with planting and harvesting o Christianity was dominant religion o The Black Death and Hundred Years War (1337-1453) left Europe in shambles Monarchs took advantage of situation and began to consolidate power o Astrolabe and quadrant invented to help sailors navigate o Printing press invented in Germany 1450s helped spread information o Tech advances and strength of national rulers made exploration possible Early European Explorations o Europeans got practice with Mediterranean Atlantic o Portugal setup trading posts in Africa Spanish Exploration o Columbus lands in Bahamas 1492 o John Cabot discovers North America June 24, 1497 o Spanish colonization model Crown maintained tight control over colonies History 020 Notes Most colonists were male (took Indians and later African women as sex partners) Wealth was based on the exploitation of both the native population and slaves imported from Africa o Spain worked to convert Indians to Catholicism o St. Augustine founded in 1598 o Columbian Exchange: transfer of diseases, plants, and animals Sugar, horses, and tobacco had significant impact on Europe and Americas Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke (in North Carolina, called Virginia) in 1587, founded deserted in 1590 European Settlements by 1650 o English: Chesapeake Bay (Jamestown, Virginia), New Haven, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay (Rhode Island, Boston, Plymouth, Salem) o Dutch (New Amsterdam on Manhattan, Hudson River) o Swedish (Fort Christina, New Swedan) o French (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Montreal) o Spanish (St. Augustine, Florida) The Caribbean o Europeans wanted islands for sugar cultivation o Spain took control of Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico) o England, France and Netherlands took Lesser Antilles English Colonization o Tried to copy Spanish model but failed instead sent large numbers of men and women History 020 Notes o Two major motivators for English colonization: overpopulation of England (largely due to introduction of American drops), and religious dissenters o Protestant reformation led by Martin Luther (German monk) and John Calvin (French cleric and lawyer) thought people could interpret the Bible for themselves o Calvinists came to be known as Puritans or Separatists o Many English emigrants were sponsored by joint-stock companies instead of states The Founding of Virginia o Jamestown founded by Virginia Company in 1607 by 104 men near Chesapeake Bay o By 1608 on 38 colonists remained alive o The Powhatan Confederacy led by Powhatan consisted of six Algonquian tribes o Colonists kidnap Pocahontas, who marries John Rolfe as a possible form of diplomacy o Tobacco became centerpiece of economy...
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This note was uploaded on 08/03/2008 for the course HIST 020 taught by Professor Kearns during the Spring '06 term at UPenn.

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History 020 Notes - History 020 Notes 2/4/08 Colonial...

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