BackgroundThe kidneys are important organs in the body that filters the blood to remove excess wastes and minerals. These excess minerals can sometimes build up inside the kidney and form stones. “They are usually comprised of calcium oxalate but may be composed of several other compounds deposits.”[Pet17] While some stones may remain fairly small and pass easily through the body, others can become quite large and become painful as well as cause problems within the body. “Kidney stones that remain inside the body can lead to many complications, including blockage of the ureter (the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder), obstructing the path that urine uses to leave the body.”[Pet17] Since passing a kidney stone can be a very painfulprocess, it is not uncommon for people to look up home remedies that may be effective in dissolving the kidney stone. TheoriesIt is believed that drinks and foods with higher acidic properties can dissolve kidney stones since the majority of kidney stones are comprised of calcium, a strong base. In lab,two types of stones will be created and this theory will be tested by trying to dissolve the artificial stones in household items that are typically used in home remedies. Hypothesis and ObjectivesIn week one, two kidney stone samples will be made. Calcium Oxalate will be made fromCaCl2 and Na2C2O4. A Calcium Phosphate sample will be made from CaCl2 and NA3PO4. Once the precipitates are formed, they will be dried and saved for week two. In week two, the samples will be placed in several different acidic liquids to determine if they can be dissolved. Once they have soaked for a pre-determined amount of time, a series of titrations will be performed to determine if any dissolving had occurred. Our group hypothesized that the home remedies tested would have little to no impact on dissolving the stones. Part 1 MethodsAfter calculating the amount needed to form enough precipitate, 5.738 grams of CaCl2 and 5.23 grams of Na2C2O4 was gathered. Sodium Chlorate was poured into 200 ml of DI water anddissolved in a 300 ml beaker with the magnetic stirrer. The Calcium Chloride was dissolved separately in 100 ml of DI water with the magnetic stirrer. Once the two solutions were completely dissolved, they were poured and mixed together to form a precipitate. This mixture was spun down in a centrifuge and then decanted. The solid precipitate was then removed from the centrifuge tubes and transferred to the oven to dry. The precipitate formed a calcium oxalate stone.