FINAL - Cancer o 90% mutations cause cancer and vice versa....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cancer o 90% mutations cause cancer and vice versa. o Some things cause cancer w/o causing a mutation. (i.e.)asbestos) Asbestos insulator lung tissue irritation causes some cells die it stays in lungs causing continual growth of lung cells. 1/3 people w/ cancer die. Thalidimide - babies have mutations(not cancer) o 90% cancer are due to the environment (they’re preventable o Testing a new chemical 1. test chemicals on animals. Time consuming- animals have to be kept controlled Expensive/time consuming/PETA sabatoging/2 sets of chromosomes 2. Ames Test Ames test exploits the bacteria to test whether or not chemical is mutagen. Bacteria only have only have 1 stand of DNA, mutation only needs to change 1 copy of DNA to be seen in bacteria. Fast dividing time. If passes Ames test, then it will be tested on more expensive animal testing. Downfall: prokaryotes and eukaryotes different metabolisms Spontaneous mutation= 10 ^-6 o Cancer in plants stunts growth o Types of Cancer 1. Tumors = growth of solid mass Benign = noninvasive tumor that grows slow and is still surrounded by connective tissue. Malignant = potentially life threatening- cells growing faster. Metastatic = cancer has fragmented and entered blood (low survival rate) 2. Non tumors= don’t form masses. These are usually cancer of the blood (ex. Leukemia- wbc grow out of control) you cannot catch cancer. 3. treatment= biopsy/lumpectomy/x-ray/CAT/ MRI o Danger of cancer cells 1. normal cells have contact inhibition= they grow one layer then stop if u keep scraping away they’ll eventually stop growing back. Normal cells grow old and die eventually. 2. cancer cells do NOT have contact inhibition. They do not grow old and die. o Hela cells =hela cells= stem cells. research labs use cancer cells of Helen Lane—from Henrieta Lacks o Cancer as adult- dedifferentiated- all begin to mutate o 50% cancer bc mutation in (P53) repressor protein. o Normal cells Have contact inhibitions Grow old and die Differentiated
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
o Cancer cells: No contact inhibition Cells are immortal Embryonic in appearance (undifferentiated)—these genes code for proteins that stimulate the cell to divide, o Genes regulated: regulated with repressor protein (binds to binding site) in front of gene and prevents its expression simply prevents RNA polymerase from binding and transcribing the gene. o Genetic basis for cancer- 1. mutation at the repressor binding site- mutations at the repressor binding stite prevents the repressor from binding gene on unregulated 2. mutation in the repressor itself (p53) p53 gene encodes for repressor like protein that protects the cell against cancer. If p53 mutated- cell susceptible to cancer. We are diploid, so both cells have to be damaged for cancer to occur.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 08/04/2008 for the course CHEM 153A taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '05 term at UCLA.

Page1 / 12

FINAL - Cancer o 90% mutations cause cancer and vice versa....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online