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The Cola Project: Analysis of Phosphorus in ColaNathan Duong*, Lauren Mooney, Alexandria Yap, and Chirag Bisht*642 W 34thSt. Los Angeles CA 90007; [email protected]February 21, 2017AbstractBy using both titration and spectrophotometric analysis, the concentration of phosphorus within a Cola solution can be calculated. Overall, the purpose of this experiment is to discover which method yields more accurate and precise results. From this experiment the average concentrationof phosphorus calculated through titration and spectroscopy were 349 ppm and 154 ppm respectively, as shown by Table 8 and Table 4. IntroductionPhosphate is a critical compound of the human body. It’s involved in many necessary processes. As one of the primary minerals in bone, it supports the skeletal development. Phosphate also helps metabolize other minerals. Furthermore, phosphate is a key component of membrane phospholipids and nucleotides that serve as the genetic material of the human body in DNA and RNA. Inorganic phosphate also plays a role in energy transferring reactions.Phosphate levels in the body are regulated by the kidneys. The kidneys control how muchinorganic phosphate the body absorbs to maintain homeostasis. Renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters also assist in adjusting the body’s absorption of phosphate. The regulation of phosphate levels is important because a lack of phosphate in the humanbody is linked to several diseases. For example, the body’s excessive waste of inorganic phosphate is called X-Iinked hypophosphatemia (XLH) (Takeda et al., 2004). Symptoms of XLHinclude bone disease and delayed growth (Takeda et al., 2004). Hypophosphatemia is the lack of phosphate in the blood. It occurs at abnormally high rates for hospitalized individuals. 28% of critically ill hospital patients display hypophosphatemia (Takeda et al., 2004). This lack of phosphate can negatively impact the process of glycolysis and the ability for the body to obtain energy from sugar. Hypophosphatemia weakens muscles, disrupts blood flow, and subsequently causes deoxygenation of the body’s tissues.On the other hand, high concentrations of phosphate is also problematic for the human body. High levels of phosphorus also caused calcification, the buildup of calcium salts on the walls of one’s blood vessels, in vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcification ultimately causes tissues to harden. Calcification is common in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), kidney failure (Reynolds et al, 2004). Increased phosphorus is suggested as contributing factor inthe high blood pressure of ESRD patients, causing the kidneys to fail.The absorption of phosphate by the body can impact the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, the excess of the parathyroid hormone released by the parathyroid glands.