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Running Head: Diabetes and Drug Treatments1Dacia WoessnerNURS 6521 Advanced PharmacologyWeek 6 AssignmentWalden UniversityApril 5, 2016
Diabetes and Drug Treatments2IntroductionDiabetes is a term that is used to represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneousgroup of disorders that is characterized by an abnormally high glucose level calledhyperglycemia (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Hyperglycemia is a result of insulin deficiency orthe cellular resistance to what insulin does in the body. According to Arcangelo & Peterson, thereare four major classifications of diabetes. However, for this paper, three types will be discussed,type 1, type 2 and gestational. There will be an emphasis on type 2 diabetes.PathophysiologyType 1 diabetes used to be considered juvenile diabetes. However, now it is referred to astype 1 because the disease can occur at any age. With type 1 type pancreatic beta cells aredamaged and this causes an absence of insulin. They type of diabetes can be distinguished by thepresence of absence of islets with type 1 all, or a subset of inlets lack all insulin secreting betacells and are usually in a lobular form (Babu & Eisenbarth, 2012). With the islets infiltrated, theinsulin reserve steadily decreases until it can no longer maintain a normal blood glucose level.Type 2 diabetes is more about the resistance to insulin unlike type 1 there is acompromised insulin secretion, which causes an increase in glucose production. Type 2 diabetesis considered a heterogeneous disorder and is multifactorial because it affects many bodysystems. There is a reduced sensitivity to insulin in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue as well as