Midterm 2 – FFN Lecture 9 – cardiovascular disease – phytosterols and soy proteins/isoflavones Atherosclerosis plaque is deposited on the inside walls of blood vessels and it occurs form high blood pressure, infection, inflammation, presence of high shear o Leads to: Free radical and injury and promotes the oxidation of LDL o Atheroma (plaque is made of up of foam cells): Lipids, WBCs, and calcium Arterial enlargement normally occurs around the plaque and it can block blood flow (ischemia) o Occurs in: Blood vessel atherosclerosis and leads to angioplasty and bypass surgery needed Heart coronary arteries and leads to angina or myocardial infarction Brain stroke Plaque can break free clot (thrombosis – arteries or veins) and can block blood flow as the clot circulates Abnormal arterial enlargement aneurysm Plant sterols and blood cholesterol lowering: Includes sterols, stanols, phytosterols Stipulates a linkage between consumption of these compounds and the reduced risk of heart disease by lowering the blood cholesterol levels Phytosterol health claim: o 8.8% reduction in LDL cholesterol with intake of 2g/day of plant sterols o dose-response relationship was observed up to 3g/day o at 2 g/day the effects of plant sterols appeared to be largely independent of the food matrix o “(serving size from nutrition facts table in metric and common household meausres) of soy/isoflavones supplies/provides X % of daily amount (2g) of plant sterols/stanols shown to help reduce/lower cholesterol in adults” o “plant sterols help reduce (or help lower) cholesterol” o “high cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease” the food: o safety assessed as a novel food o low fractional absorption o maximum levels of 1 g per serving in spreads, dressings, yogurt products, vegetables and fruits permitted with no objection beyond this number requires a safety assessment o health claims that may be used in labelling a food or dietary supplement in the united states:
“plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease” o 8 groups of FOSHU health claims: serum cholesterol claim “products can claim that they help to decrease serum cholesterol levels” phytosterols included in this category what are phytosterols: o naturally found in plant membranes o associated with oils vegetable oils o also in cereals, nuts, vegetables, berries and other fruits o typical western diet 100 – 300 mg/day but a typical vegetarian diet contains more, however both of these are not sufficient enough to exert a physiological effect o most common compound = beta-sitosterol and campesterol o vegetable sterols = mostly unsaturated (sterols) o significant number of saturated sterols from oil from coniferous trees (pine and spruce) o hydrogenation of sterols = stanols o insoluble in both water and oil – crystalize readily o
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- Spring '15
- Nutrition, ldl cholesterol, Soy protein