the stranger and consciousness1 - Running Head CONCEPTS OF...

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Running Head: CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS Notions of the stranger and double consciousness Student’s name Lecturer’s name Course title Date of submission
CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS According to Simmel, a stranger stands for a particular social type. In connection to this, social types are formed not per the inherent traits of a person or to an individual's option to be a particular ‘type,' however through being resolute to be a special kind of a person according to the connection of a person to others (Edles and Appelrouth 2010). On the other hand, Simmel pointed other forms of social types, incorporating ‘the miser,' ‘the poor,' and the ‘adventurer.' Regarding the stranger, Edles and Appelrouth (2010) state, "The connection of a stranger to the group is deeply grounded in an exceptional fusion of opposites that entail: ‘nearness' and ‘remoteness' (301). The outsider is close to insofar as the outsider, and the group contributes to the common traits such as gender or race. However, the stranger is isolated since those standard features are frosty and unclear, and is collective with several others. For this reason, "the stranger is perceived not as an individual, but, somewhat, as a ‘type' of a person whose certain characteristics make him distinctive from the rest of the group" (Edles and Appelrouth 2010:301). Although it is this unique permutation of being both close to and remote that affords the stranger a kind of "outsider within" spot in connection to the group. Simmel asserts that "The stranger is a component of the group itself…and an element whose association in the group entails being both outside it and tackling it" (1908/2010:303). Since the stranger is part of the team, and so far is present outside the group, hence she is confronted by and herself confronting the group. In this light, Simmel writes that, the stranger is "present in a particular spacial circle – or in a group whose borders are comparable to the spatial margins – however his position in it is fundamentally affected by the reality that he does not fit in in it primarily and that he brings traits to it that are not, and cannot be, original to it" (1908/2010:302). Hence, Simmel asserts that this outsider condition can, in fact, convert the
CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS stranger into an "essential component of the entire group" (Edles and Appelrouth 2010:301). Since the stranger "is by his very personality no holder of land…not merely in the real logic but also symbolically as a fundamental stuff that is permanent" (Simmel 1908/2010:303), the spot of the stranger is therefore characterized by movement. For this reason, the stranger may perhaps get in touch with the rest of a group, this is not "bound up physically, via some well-known ties of kinship, vicinity, or profession" (Simmel 1908/2010:303). This movement is what gives the

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