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Running Head: CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESSNotions of the stranger and double consciousnessStudent’s nameLecturer’s nameCourse titleDate of submission
CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESSAccording to Simmel, a stranger stands for a particular social type. In connection to this, socialtypes are formed not per the inherent traits of a person or to an individual's option to be aparticular ‘type,' however through being resolute to be a special kind of a person according to theconnection of a person to others (Edles and Appelrouth 2010). On the other hand, Simmelpointed other forms of social types, incorporating ‘the miser,' ‘the poor,' and the ‘adventurer.'Regarding the stranger, Edles and Appelrouth (2010) state, "The connection of a stranger to thegroup is deeply grounded in an exceptional fusion of opposites that entail: ‘nearness' and‘remoteness' (301). The outsider is close to insofar as the outsider, and the group contributes tothe common traits such as gender or race. However, the stranger is isolated since those standard features are frosty and unclear, and iscollective with several others. For this reason, "the stranger is perceived not as an individual, but,somewhat, as a ‘type' of a person whose certain characteristics make him distinctive from the restof the group" (Edles and Appelrouth 2010:301). Although it is this unique permutation of beingboth close to and remote that affords the stranger a kind of "outsider within" spot in connectionto the group. Simmel asserts that "The stranger is a component of the group itself…and anelement whose association in the group entails being both outside it and tackling it"(1908/2010:303). Since the stranger is part of the team, and so far is present outside the group, hence she isconfronted by and herself confronting the group. In this light, Simmel writes that, the stranger is"present in a particular spacial circle – or in a group whose borders are comparable to the spatialmargins – however his position in it is fundamentally affected by the reality that he does not fitin in it primarily and that he brings traits to it that are not, and cannot be, original to it"(1908/2010:302). Hence, Simmel asserts that this outsider condition can, in fact, convert the
CONCEPTS OF THE STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESSstranger into an "essential component of the entire group" (Edles and Appelrouth 2010:301).Since the stranger "is by his very personality no holder of land…not merely in the real logic butalso symbolically as a fundamental stuff that is permanent" (Simmel 1908/2010:303), the spot ofthe stranger is therefore characterized by movement. For this reason, the stranger may perhapsget in touch with the rest of a group, this is not "bound up physically, via some well-known tiesof kinship, vicinity, or profession" (Simmel 1908/2010:303). This movement is what gives the