cold-war-notes - East West Relations after 1945 THE COLD...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

East — West Relations after 1945 ( THE COLD WAR ) Definition : ‘cold war’ describes the conflict between the USSR and the ‘Western Powers’ in the period following WWII / Period of tension characterized by conflict at diplomatic, economic and all levels short of actual armed conflict between the principals on either side. Origins : o breakdown of wartime co-operation between the Allies (Obvious at Yalta and Potsdam conferences) o possible to trace as far back as 1917 when the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia led to the creation of the world’s first communist state (in conflict with the west) o Didn’t emerge until after WWII b/c the USSR and USA were both isolated after WWI and USSR could not put into practive the ideal of exporting revolution. Factors which contributed to the outbreak of the Cold War 1. Mutual suspicion 2. Nature of the official ideology of the USSR: stated the inevitability of conflict with western capitalist states contributed to suspicions from the west / not certain that Stalin was motivated by this Marxist- Leninist ideology 3. Liberal-democratic system of the West was not well understood by Stalin: the allies were unable to commit themselves ‘on the spot’ but had to refer to their parliament or congress, this was evidence for Stalin of lack of faith. 4. Conflict btw fundamental aims of Stalin and Roosevelt: o Roosevelt had idealistic aims (‘four freedoms’: f. from want, f. of speech, f. of religious belief and f. from fear) o Stalin had more concrete aims (regaining of Russian territory lost in WWI, control over E.E. …) o Tendency to interpret the actions of the other in the light of their own priorities. 1. Nature of Stalin’s regime: dictatorship of USSR was only justified if external forces threatened the security of USSR, therefore to prevent the danger of being overthrown from within, Stalin had to have external enemies. 2. Death of Roosevelt: Stalin had a great deal of respect for him / Truman was far less of an internationalist + far less willing to extent goodwill to the USSR / Churchill replaced by Attlee. 3. The bipolar nature of international relations: USSR and USA were the only real powers in the immediate post-WWII period and as representatives of rival social systems they were forced into confrontation. The Cold War develops — events 1944-1949 The Yalta Conference , February 1945: o Most of the discussions involved the arrangements for Europe following ending of the war since defeat of Nazi Germany was only a matter of time. o The Allies had been united by a negative goal and had not agreed on a positive goal which could continue to unite them once Hitler was not a threat anymore. The Issues : Germany :
o Germany to be divided into zones of occupation as previously agreed. o Moved away from the ‘Morgenthau Plan’ (reducing Germany to an agricultural country but not alternative was found.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture