5-IE-30-Jan-08

5-IE-30-Jan-08 - Life Cycle Inventory Analysis III Goal and...

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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 5 – January 30 Goal and scope definition Inventory Inventory analysis analysis Impact assessment Interpretation Life Cycle Inventory Analysis III
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 5 – January 30 Inventory Analysis Inventory Analysis System boundaries System boundaries In LCA inventory analysis 3 types of boundaries can be distinguished 1. the boundary between the product system and the environment system 2. the boundary between Flows and processes that are relevant and irrelevant for the product system (cut-off) 3. the boundary between the product system under consideration and other product systems (allocation) Ad 1.: Human control over processes is the main criterion for regarding a process as a unit process, hence including it in the product system (how about landfills?). Ad 2.: - Cut-off is necessary mainly for reasons of lack of data, time and money - Cut-off is more than simply ignoring certain parts, the estimation of lacking data is essential. - Possible guideline: Processes that contribute less than X % of the total inputs or outputs can be excluded from the study (ISO14041, Section 3.1) - Example: In many LCAs production and maintenance of production equipment is omitted (how about agricultural machinery?) Ad 3.: Allocation is the result of the multi-functionality (also called co-production) of an economic process and is performed at the unit process level
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 5 – January 30 The system is expanded to include additional burdens of co-product processing and the avoided burdens of any avoided processes Vehicle production v Vehicle Primary production p Building production b Recycling process r E v + E r – E Vehicle life cycle Building life cycle Building Environmental burdens of the vehicle: Allocation by avoided burden approach Allocation by avoided burden approach
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 5 – January 30 A closer look at the avoided burden method Vehicle Life Cycle 600 kg EAF (0.6 kgCO 2 /kg) BF/BOF (2.2 kgCO 2 /kg) Building Life Cycle 600 kg 600 kg BF/BOF (2.2 kgCO 2 /kg) 600 kg 6 . 0 600 ) 6 . 0 2 . 2 ( 600 2 . 2 600 2 . 2 600 6 . 0 600 2 . 2 600 = - - = - + Vehicle: 600 kg EAF (0.6 kgCO 2 /kg) BF/BOF (2.2 kgCO 2 /kg) 600 kg 600 kg 600 2 . 2 600 2 . 1 600 2 . 2 600 6 . 0 600 6 . 0 600 - = - = - + Building: Credit for scrap generation requires debit for scrap use!
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 5 – January 30 The system is expanded to include additional burdens of co-product processing and the avoided burdens of any displaced processes Vehicle production v Vehicle Primary production p Building production b Recycling process r Vehicle: E v + E r – E p = E v (E p – E r ) Boundaries of original system Boundaries of expanded system Building Building: E p + E b = E r + E b + (E p – E r ) The avoided burden principle: credit = debit Vehicle + Building: E v + E r + E b Environmental burdens: Credit Debit
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5-IE-30-Jan-08 - Life Cycle Inventory Analysis III Goal and...

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