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Emily SweeneyHIST 140010.28.2015The English Civil Wars and the Glorious RevolutionFrom the crowning of Charles I in 1625 to the end of the Glorious Revolution in 1689, England had a tumultuous a7th century. Kings were greedy, people were poor, and alliances were formed that would change the shape of Europe. There was a constant struggle between absolutist monarchs and Parliament, as well as conflict between the religion of the king and the religion of the people. The glorious revolution became the first modern revolution, as Pincus claims, and a new, only slightly more democratic, monarchy is formed. In some ways, England didn’t change much at all, but in the same way, it went through a series of changes that strengthened the country and unified the people. When Charles I was crowned king of England, he came in with many strong opinionsabout how he thought the monarchy should run and had personal goals to achieve. Mainly, he saw his father James I battle Parliament constantly over money and power and he was determined not to have that issue. His other goal was to go to war with Spain and France, which could only be achieved by raising the taxes in England. When Parliament wouldn’t approve of the taxation, he dismissed them, beginning their disagreements with each other. Charles tries to rule on his own by forces landowners to “loan” him money and jailing them if they would not. He also begins to demand so much of the people. They must house his soldiers, and many areas were places under martial law with limited rights. He denied Puritans the right to preach and publicly whipped them to show his power. Throughout the next 3 years, he continued to recall Parliament when he needed money and dismiss them when they didn’t meet his demands. In 1628 he was so desperate for money that when he
recalled Parliament he had to accept their demands. He signed the “Petition of Rights” that said he would respect Parliament’s orders, but as soon as he had his money he promptly dismissed them again. He ruled for another 11 years as a semi-tyrant treating the people terrible and collecting all sorts of fake taxes and tariffs from the people. Along with Charles’ generally poor management skills, the people of England feared a return of Catholicism to their prominently Protestant nation. This caused both a political and religious split between Charles and the people. Charles was also a strong believer in the divine right of kings, or the idea that God sends kings to rule over nations, while the power of the Parliament had grown during the Tudor reign. Whether political or otherwise, Charlesalso marries Henrietta Maria of France, a Catholic, and orders Archbishop Laud to “beautify”the churches in England. This offended the Puritans who believed in a simple church and feared that Henrietta Maria would raise a Catholic heir. Another issue that has yet to come up is that Charles is both king of England and king of Scotland. Archbishop Laud and Charles