Introduction_to_Anatomy_and_Physiology-_Chapter_1 - Human Anatomy Physiology I 2016-2017 Terms Anatomy studies the structures of the body and their

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Unformatted text preview: Human Anatomy & Physiology I 2016-2017 Terms Anatomy – studies the structures of the body and their physical organization and relationship Physiology – studies the functions of the body Pathophysiology – studies diseases and how the body’s normal physiology can fail Homeostasis – the steady-state of the human body that physiological functions try to maintain (Negative) Feedback Loops – the control mechanisms that the body uses to maintain or restore homeostasis Levels of Organization Body Systems Homeostasis Intro to A&P video ? cid=160 Anatomical Terminology Superior- a part above another part, closer to the head Inferior- means a part below another part, toward the feet Anterior (ventral)- toward the front Posterior (dorsal)- toward the back Medial- imaginary line dividing the midline into two right and left halves (nose medial to eyes) Lateral-toward the side with respect to the midline (ears lateral to eyes) Body Sections 1. 2. 3. Sagittal- lengthwise cut Transverse – horizontal cut Frontal- coronal- divide anterior and posterior portions A Few Special Terms Palmar surface of the hand Plantar surface of the foot Bilateral- paired structures- one on each side Ipsilateral vs. Contralateral – structure on the same side or structures on opposite sidesexamples; the right kidney and right lung are ipsilateral Superficial vs. Deep – near the surface versus more internal Rostral- toward the front versus caudal- toward the back Body Regions NOTE: During Pregnancy the Uterus will expand so that it ultimately is present in all nine abdominal region Useless Body Parts ? v=6ofaqvVPo9Q Ultrasound technology Ultrasound- It’s Triplets! ? v=VY3Ureov15U&feature=related ? v=slbeTHBFrrc&feature=related PET Positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule PET used heavily in clinical oncology (medical imaging of tumors and the search for metastases) Medical Imaging Helping Kids with Cancer CT Scan Computed Axial What is aTomography CT scan? A CT scan uses x-rays to take pictures of your skull and brain. The patient lies in a tunnel-like machine. The inside of the machine rotates and takes x-rays of the head from different angles, which are later used by computers to make an image of a “slice” (or crosssection) of the brain. CT A CT scan is usually oneScan of the first tests done in a stroke evaluation, particularly during an acute stro in the emergency room. This test can show areas of abnormalities in the br can help to determine if these areas are caused by insu blood flow (ischemic stroke), a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), or a different kind of a problem. ? v=Tx-0emi4m8s MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body MRI - X-Rays X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, just Structures like visiblethat light are dense (such as bone) will block most of the x-ray particles, and will appear white. Metal and contrast media (special dye used to highlight areas of the body) will also appear white. Structures containing air will be black, and muscle, fat, and fluid will appear as shades of gray. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Current recommendations for breast cancer screening in women at high genetic risk include: Screening mammogram once a year beginning at age 25 or at least 5 years before the earliest age at which breast cancer has been diagnosed in the family Breast MRI once a year starting at the same age as the mammogram Clinical breast exams performed by a clinician every 6 – 12 months starting at age 25 Monthly breast self-exam beginning at age 18. Mammogram Digital mammography- new gold standard ? v=LzdiD5B3Grw ? v=SNrQ0CXJMNo ...
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